Stage 1 – Grade 7 – 9 – Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude.

 Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude

For Grades 7-9

Knowledge

 

K8                                                                            Essential

 

Possesses knowledge about what cultures are/how they work

 

K8.1                                                                          Useful

 

Knows that a culture is a grouping of practices or representations/ or values of all kinds shared (at least partially) by its members.

 

K8.3                                                                          Important

 

Knows that culture systems are complex/manifest themselves in different domains (special interaction, the relationship with the environment, knowledge of reality, language, table manners)

 

K8.6                                                                          Essential

 

Knows that each culture determines/organizes at least partly the perception/view of the world/way of thinking of its members

 

K8.6.1                                                                       Essential

 

Knows that facts/behaviors/speech may be perceived/ understood differently by members of different cultures

 

 K8.6.2                                                                       Important

 

Is familiar with some schemes of interpretation specific to certain cultures as far as knowledge of the world is concerned (numbering, methods of measurement, ways of telling time etc.)

 

K9                                                                            Important

 

Knows that cultural diversity and social diversity are closely linked

 

K9.1                                                                          Essential

 

Knows that a culture is always complex and is itself made up of (more or less) different and conflictual/convergent sub-cultures

 

K9.2                                                                          Important

 

Knows that within a culture there exists sub-cultures corresponding to regional/generational groupings

 

K9.2.2                                                                       Essential

 

Knows (in one’s own culture or in other cultures) some norms related to social practices and which are specific to certain social/regional/generational groupings

 

K10                                                                          Important

 

Knows the role of culture in intercultural relations and communication

 

 K10.8                                                                        Important

 

Has cultural references which structure one’s knowledge and perception of the world/other cultures, as well as one’s intercultural social and communicative practices

 

K10.9                                                                        Essential

 

Knows strategies which one can use to resolve cultural conflicts

 

K11                                                                          Important

 

Knows that cultures are continuously evolving

 

K11.1                                                                        Important

 

Knows that cultural practices/values are created by and evolve under the influence of different factors (history/ the environment/ the actions of members of the community)

 

K12                                                                          Essential

 

Knows several phenomena relative to the diversity of cultures

 

K12.2                                                                        Important

 

Knows that it is often difficult to distinguish one culture from another

 

K14                                                                          Essential

 

Knows that identity is constructed, amongst other things, in relation to one or more linguistic/cultural affiliations

 

K14.1                                                                        Essential

 

Knows that identity is constructed on different levels (social/ national/ supranational…)

 

K14.2                                                                        Important

 

Knows that one always belongs to various (sub) cultures

 

S1                                                                             Useful

 

Can observe/analyze linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in languages/cultures which are more or less familiar

 

S1.1                                                                          Useful

 

Can make use of/masters processes of observation/analysis (breaking down into elements/classifying/establishing relationships between them)

 

S1.3                                                                          Important

 

Can observe/analyze writing systems (in languages little known or not at all)

 

S1.4                                                                          Useful

 

Can observe/analyze syntactic and morphological structure

 

S1.5                                                                          Useful

 

Can analyze pragmatic functions (in a language which is little known/familiar or not known/familiar at all

 

 S1.6                                                                          Important

 

Can analyze communicative repertoires which are plurilingual in a plurilingual situation

 

S1.7                                                                          Important

 

Can analyze the cultural origin of different aspects of communication

 

S1.7.2                                                                        Important

 

Can analyze schemata used for interpreting behavior/ stereotypes

 

S1.8                                                                          Important

 

Can analyze the cultural origins of certain behaviors

 

S1.9                                                                          Important

 

Can analyze specific social phenomena as being the consequence of cultural differences

 

S1.10                                                                        Important

 

Can develop an interpretation system which enables one to perceive the characteristics of a culture/ meaning /beliefs / practices

 

S2                                                                             Useful

 

Can identify linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in language/cultures which are more or less familiar

 

 S2.1                                                                          Important

 

Can identify sound forms (has aural recognition skills)

 

S2.2                                                                          Important

 

Can identify written forms

 

S2.3                                                                          Essential

 

Can make use of linguistic evidence to identify words of different origin

 

S2.4                                                                          Important

 

Can identify grammatical categories/functions/markers (article, noun…)

 

S2.5                                                                          Important

 

Can identify languages on the basis of identification of linguistic forms

 

S2.5.3                                                                        Important

 

Can identify languages on the basis of known words/expressions

 

S2.5.4                                                                        Important

 

Can identify languages on the basis of grammatical markers

 

S2.6                                                                          Important

 

Can identify pragmatic functions

 

S2.7                                                                          Important

 

Can identify discourse types

 

S2.8                                                                          Important

 

Can identify cultural specifities/references/affinities

 

S2.8.2                                                                        Important

 

Can identify specificities of/references to/affinities of one’s own culture

 

S2.9                                                                          Important

 

Can identify communicative variations engendered by cultural differences

 

S2.10                                                                        Important

 

Can identify specific forms of behavior linked to cultural differences

 

S2.11                                                                        Important

 

Can identify cultural prejudice

 

S3                                                                             Essential

 

Can compare linguistic/cultural features of different languages/cultures (Can perceive/establish linguistic cultural proximity and distance)

 

S3.1                                                                          Essential

 

Can apply procedures for making comparisons

 

S3.2                                                                          Essential

 

Can perceive proximity and distance (can discriminate aurally)

 

S3.5                                                                          Essential

 

Can perceive global similarities between two/several languages

 

S3.7                                                                          Essential

 

Can compare the grammatical functioning of different languages

 

S3.8                                                                          Essential

 

Can compare the grammatical functions of different languages

 

S3.9                                                                          Essential

 

Can compare communicative cultures

 

S3.9.1                                                                        Essential

 

Can compare discourse types in different languages

 

S3.9.1.1                                                                     Essential

 

Can compare discourse types in one’s own language to those of another

 

S3.10                                                                        Essential

 

Can compare features of a culture (perceive the cultural proximity/distance)

 

S3.10.3                                                                      Essential

 

Can compare meanings corresponding to cultural features (ie time)

 

S3.10.4                                                                      Essential

 

Can compare different cultural practices

 

S4                                                                             Useful

 

Can talk about/explain certain aspects of one’s own language/culture/other languages/other cultures

 

S4.4                                                                          Important

 

Can agree about cultural diversity (advantages, disadvantages, difficulties) and construct his/her own opinion about it

 

S5                                                                             Essential

 

Can use knowledge and skills already mastered in one language in activities of comprehension/production in another language

 

S5.1                                                                          Essential

 

Can construct a set of hypotheses about affinities or differences between languages

 

S5.2                                                                          Essential

 

Can identify transfer points/features of a language which allow a transfer of knowledge between languages/ within a language

 

S5.3                                                                          Essential

 

Can make Interlingua transfers/transfers of recognition, which establish a link between an identified feature of a known language and a feature one seeks to identify in an unfamiliar language/transfers of production from known language to an unfamiliar one

 

S5.4                                                                          Important

 

Can carry out Interlingua transfers

 

S5.5                                                                          Important

 

Can check the validity of transfers that have been made

 

A1-A6

 

Attention/Sensitivity/Curiosity/Positive acceptance/Openness/Respect/Valorization with respect to languages cultures and the diversity of languages and cultures

 

A2                                                                            Important

 

Sensitivity to the existence of other languages/cultures/persons/to the existence of linguistic/cultural/human diversity

 

A2.4                                                                          Important

 

Being sensitive both to differences and to similarities between different languages/cultures

 

A2.6                                                                          Important

 

Sensitivity to the relativity of linguistic/cultural customs

 

A3                                                                            Essential

 

Curiosity about/interest in foreign languages/cultures/ persons//pluricultural contexts// the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general

 

A3.2                                                                          Essential

 

Curiosity about discovering how one’s own/other languages/cultures work

 

A3.3                                                                          Important

 

Interest in discovering other perspectives of interpretation of familiar/unfamiliar phenomena both in one’s own culture/language and in other cultures/languages/cultural (linguistic) practices

 

A3.4                                                                          Useful

 

Interest in understanding what happens in intercultural/Plurilingual interactions.

 

A4                                                                            Essential

 

Positive acceptance of linguistic/cultural diversity/of what is different

 

A4.4                                                                          Important

 

Accepting the existence of other modes of interpretation of reality/other values/systems (linguistic, implicit, the meaning of behaviors, etc…)

 

A4.6                                                                          Important

 

Reacting without an a priori negative slant to bilingual talk (ways of speaking which resort to two languages used alternately, essentially between speakers sharing the same plurilingual repertoire

 

A4.7                                                                          Important

 

Reacting without an a priori negative slant to mixed cultural practices

 

A4.8                                                                          Essential

 

Accepting the spread and complexity of linguistic/cultural differences (and consequently, the fact that one cannot know everything)

 

A4.8.1                                                                       Essential

 

Acceptance of the linguistic/cultural complexity of individual/collective identities as a legitimate characteristic of groups and societies

 

A5                                                                            Important

 

Openness to the diversity of languages/people/cultures of the world/to the diversity as such (to difference itself)

 

A5.1                                                                          Important

 

Empathy (openness) to alternate choices

 

 A6                                                                            Important

 

Respect/regard for foreign/different languages/cultures/persons// for linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment// for linguistic/cultural/human diversity as such (in general)

 

A6.1                                                                          Important

 

Respect for differences and diversity (in a plurilingual and pluricultural environment)

 

A6.2                                                                          Important

 

Valuing linguistic/cultural contacts

 

A6.2.1                                                                       Important

 

Considering that loans from other languages/cultures become part of the reality of a language/culture and may contribute to enriching it

 

A6.3                                                                          Useful

 

Having regard for bilingualism

 

A6.4                                                                          Important

 

Considering all languages as equal in dignity

 

A6.5                                                                          Useful

 

Having respect for human dignity and universal human rights

 

 A6.5.2                                                                       Useful

 

Considering each language/culture as a means of human development, of social inclusion and as an indispensable condition in the exercise of citizenship

 

A7-A8

 

Disposition/Motivation/Will/Desire to engage in activity related to languages/cultures and to the diversity of languages and cultures

 

A7                                                                            Important   

                                                 

Disposition/motivation with respect to linguistic/cultural diversity/plurality

 

A7.2                                                                          Important

 

Readiness to engage in pluralistic communication while following the rituals and conventions appropriate to context

 

A7.3                                                                          Important

 

Readiness to face difficulties linked to plurilingual/pluricultural situations and interactions

 

A7.3.2                                                                       Important

 

Readiness to assume the anxiety, which is inherent to plurilingual/pluricultural situations and interactions

 

A7.3.4                                                                       Important

 

Readiness to experience a threat to one’s identity (to feel disindividualized)

 

A7.3.5                                                                       Useful

 

Readiness to be considered as an outsider

 

A7.4                                                                          Useful

 

Disposition to share one’s linguistic/cultural knowledge with others

 

A7.5                                                                          Important

 

Motivation to study/compare the functioning of different languages (structures, vocabulary, systems of writing)/ cultures

 

A8                                                                            Essential

 

A wish/will to be involved/to act in connection with linguistic or cultural diversity/plurality// in a plurilingual or pluricultural environment

 

A8.1                                                                          Important

 

A will to take up the challenge of linguistic/cultural diversity (going beyond simple tolerance, towards deeper levels of understanding and respect, towards acceptance)

 

A8.2                                                                          Important

 

Participating consciously in the construction of one’s own plurilingual/pluricultural competence/voluntary involvement in the development of the process of plurilingual/pluricultural socialization

 

 A8.3                                                                          Useful

 

A will to build/to participate in a shared language culture (built on knowledge, values and attitudes to language, shared in general by the community)

 

A8.4                                                                          Useful

 

A will to construct a language culture solidly based on tested knowledge of languages and language

 

A8.4.1                                                                       Useful

 

A commitment to have at one’s disposal a linguistic culture which helps to better understand languages (where languages come from, how they evolve, what makes them similar or different)

 

A8.4.2                                                                       Important

 

A will to verbalize/discuss representations one may have of certain linguistic phenomena (loans/mixing of languages)

 

A8.6                                                                          Useful

 

A will/wish to be involved in communication with persons from different cultures/to come into contact with others

 

A8.7                                                                          Important

 

A will to assume the implications/consequences of one’s decisions and behaviours (ethical dimension responsibility)

 

A8.8                                                                          Important

 

A will to learn from others

 

A9 – A12

 

Attitudes/Stances of questioning –

 

Distanciation – An avoidance attachment style used more for distancing strategies such as denying or minimizing their internal distress.

 

Decentration – Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development where a child slowly moves away from an egocentric world to a world shared with others.

 

A9                                                                            Important

 

An attitude of critical questioning/ a critical position towards language/ culture in general

 

A9.1                                                                          Important

 

A will to ask questions relative to languages/cultures

 

A9.2                                                                          Important

 

Considering languages/cultures//linguistic/cultural diversity//linguistic/cultural mixes//the learning of languages// their importance// their utility as issues about which questions and discussions may arise

 

A9.2.4.1                                                                     Useful

 

Having a critical attitude to the use of language as an instrument of manipulation

 

 A9.3                                                                          Important

 

A will to question the values and presuppositions of the cultural products and practices of one’s own environment/of other cultural contexts

 

A9.3.1                                                                       Important

 

Ability to assume a critical distance from information and opinions produced by media/common sense/one’s interlocutors about one’s own community/other communities

 

A9.4                                                                          Important

 

A critical attitude to one’s own values (norms) the values (norms) of others

 

A10                                                                          Useful

 

A will to construct informed knowledge/ representations

 

A10.1                                                                        Useful

 

A will to possess a more considered/less normative view of linguistic/cultural phenomena (loans/linguistics or cultural mixes)

 

A10.2                                                                        Useful

 

A will to take complexity into account/to avoid generalisations about every object concerned in the field of languages and cultures

 

 A10.3                                                                        Important

 

A will to take critical distance from conventional attitudes about/concerning cultural differences

 

A10.4                                                                        Useful

 

A will to overcome barriers/to be open in relation to languages/cultures/communication in general

 

A11                                                                          Important

 

A disposition/a will to suspend one’s judgment/one’s acquired representations/one’s prejudices

 

A11.1                                                                        Essential

 

Being disposed to distance oneself from one’s own language/culture//look at one’s own language from the outside

 

A11.2                                                                        Essential

 

Disposition to suspend judgment about one’s own culture/other issues

 

A11.3                                                                        Important

 

A will to combat (deconstruct/overcome) one’s own prejudices towards other languages/cultures and their speakers/members

 

A11.3.2                                                                     Important

 

Being ready to adopt attitudes to diversity which conform to knowledge one may acquire/may have acquired from it

 

A12                                                                          Essential

 

Disposition to starting a process of linguistic/cultural decantation/relativisation

 

A12.1                                                                        Important

 

Being ready to distance oneself from one’s own cultural perspective and to be attentive to the effects that this may have on one’s own perception of phenomena

 

A12.2                                                                        Important

 

Accepting to suspend or to question one’s practices/behaviours/values and adopt behaviours/attitudes/ values other than those which have so far constituted one’s linguistic and cultural identity

 

A13-A15

 

Readiness to adapt/Self-confidence/sense of familiarity

 

A13                                                                          Important

 

A will/disposition to adapt oneself/Flexibility

 

A13.1                                                                        Important

 

A will to adapt/to be flexible in one’s own behaviour when interacting with persons who are linguistically/culturally different from oneself

 

A13.2                                                                        Useful

 

Being ready to go through the different stages of the process of adaptation to another culture

 

A13.2.2                                                                     Important

 

A will to adapt one’s own behaviour to what one knows/learns about communication in the host culture

 

A13.3                                                                        Important

 

Flexibility in one’s own stance (behaviour/attitude) vis a vis foreign languages

 

A13.4                                                                        Important

 

A will to face different manners of perception/expression/ behaviour

 

A13.5                                                                        Useful

 

Tolerating ambiguity

 

A14                                                                          Useful

 

Having self-confidence/feeling at ease

 

A14.1                                                                        Important

 

Feeling capable of facing the complexity/the diversity of contexts/of speakers

 

A14.2                                                                        Useful

 

Being self-confident in a situation of communication (expression/reception/interaction/mediation)

 

A14.3                                                                        Useful

 

Having confidence in one’s own abilities in relation to languages (their study/their use)

 

A14.3.1                                                                     Essential

 

Confidence in one’s own capacities of observation/of analysis of little known or unknown languages

 

A15                                                                          Important

 

A feeling of familiarity

 

A15.1                                                                        Important

 

A feeling of familiarity linked to similarities/proximities between languages/between cultures

 

A15.2                                                                        Essential

 

Considering every language/culture as something accessible (some aspects of which are already known)

 

A15.2.1                                                                     Important

 

A (progressive) feeling of familiarity within new characteristics/practices of a linguistic or cultural order (new sound systems, new ways of writing, new behaviours)

 

A16

 

Identity

 

A16                                                                          Important

 

Assuming one’s own (linguistic/cultural) identity

 

 A16.1                                                                        Useful

 

Being sensitive to the complexity/the diversity of the rapport which every person has with language/languages/cultures

 

A16.2                                                                        Important

 

Accepting a social identity in which the languages one speaks/the culture one ascribes to occupy an (important) position

 

A16.3                                                                        Important

 

Considering one’s own historical identity with confidence/pride but also while respecting other identities

 

A16.4                                                                        Important

 

Being attentive (vigilant) to the dangers of cultural impoverishment/alienation that contact with another/other (dominant) language/cultures may bring about

 

A16.5                                                                        Useful

 

Being attentive to the possibilities of cultural openness/enrichment that contact with another/other language/cultures may bring about

 

A17-A19

 

Attitudes to learning

 

A17                                                                          Important

 

Sensitivity to experience

 

 

A17.2                                                                        Important

 

According value to linguistic knowledge/skills irrespective of the context in which they have been acquired (within school/outside school)

 

A18                                                                          Important

 

A motivation to learn languages (of schooling/family/foreign /regional…)

 

A18.3                                                                        Useful

 

Being disposed to follow up the linguistic learning started within a formal teaching context in an autonomous fashion

 

A18.4                                                                        Useful

 

Disposition to learn language throughout one’s life

 

A19                                                                          Important

 

Attitudes aiming to construct pertinent and informed representations for learning

 

A19.1                                                                        Important

 

Disposition to modify one’s own knowledge/representations about the learning of languages when these appear to be unfavourable to learning (negative prejudice)

 

A19.2                                                                        Useful

 

Interest in learning techniques/in one’s own learning style

 

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