Stage 1 – Grade 7 – 9 – Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude.

 Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude

For Grades 7-9



K8                                                                            Essential


Possesses knowledge about what cultures are/how they work


K8.1                                                                          Useful


Knows that a culture is a grouping of practices or representations/ or values of all kinds shared (at least partially) by its members.


K8.3                                                                          Important


Knows that culture systems are complex/manifest themselves in different domains (special interaction, the relationship with the environment, knowledge of reality, language, table manners)


K8.6                                                                          Essential


Knows that each culture determines/organizes at least partly the perception/view of the world/way of thinking of its members


K8.6.1                                                                       Essential


Knows that facts/behaviors/speech may be perceived/ understood differently by members of different cultures


 K8.6.2                                                                       Important


Is familiar with some schemes of interpretation specific to certain cultures as far as knowledge of the world is concerned (numbering, methods of measurement, ways of telling time etc.)


K9                                                                            Important


Knows that cultural diversity and social diversity are closely linked


K9.1                                                                          Essential


Knows that a culture is always complex and is itself made up of (more or less) different and conflictual/convergent sub-cultures


K9.2                                                                          Important


Knows that within a culture there exists sub-cultures corresponding to regional/generational groupings


K9.2.2                                                                       Essential


Knows (in one’s own culture or in other cultures) some norms related to social practices and which are specific to certain social/regional/generational groupings


K10                                                                          Important


Knows the role of culture in intercultural relations and communication


 K10.8                                                                        Important


Has cultural references which structure one’s knowledge and perception of the world/other cultures, as well as one’s intercultural social and communicative practices


K10.9                                                                        Essential


Knows strategies which one can use to resolve cultural conflicts


K11                                                                          Important


Knows that cultures are continuously evolving


K11.1                                                                        Important


Knows that cultural practices/values are created by and evolve under the influence of different factors (history/ the environment/ the actions of members of the community)


K12                                                                          Essential


Knows several phenomena relative to the diversity of cultures


K12.2                                                                        Important


Knows that it is often difficult to distinguish one culture from another


K14                                                                          Essential


Knows that identity is constructed, amongst other things, in relation to one or more linguistic/cultural affiliations


K14.1                                                                        Essential


Knows that identity is constructed on different levels (social/ national/ supranational…)


K14.2                                                                        Important


Knows that one always belongs to various (sub) cultures


S1                                                                             Useful


Can observe/analyze linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in languages/cultures which are more or less familiar


S1.1                                                                          Useful


Can make use of/masters processes of observation/analysis (breaking down into elements/classifying/establishing relationships between them)


S1.3                                                                          Important


Can observe/analyze writing systems (in languages little known or not at all)


S1.4                                                                          Useful


Can observe/analyze syntactic and morphological structure


S1.5                                                                          Useful


Can analyze pragmatic functions (in a language which is little known/familiar or not known/familiar at all


 S1.6                                                                          Important


Can analyze communicative repertoires which are plurilingual in a plurilingual situation


S1.7                                                                          Important


Can analyze the cultural origin of different aspects of communication


S1.7.2                                                                        Important


Can analyze schemata used for interpreting behavior/ stereotypes


S1.8                                                                          Important


Can analyze the cultural origins of certain behaviors


S1.9                                                                          Important


Can analyze specific social phenomena as being the consequence of cultural differences


S1.10                                                                        Important


Can develop an interpretation system which enables one to perceive the characteristics of a culture/ meaning /beliefs / practices


S2                                                                             Useful


Can identify linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in language/cultures which are more or less familiar


 S2.1                                                                          Important


Can identify sound forms (has aural recognition skills)


S2.2                                                                          Important


Can identify written forms


S2.3                                                                          Essential


Can make use of linguistic evidence to identify words of different origin


S2.4                                                                          Important


Can identify grammatical categories/functions/markers (article, noun…)


S2.5                                                                          Important


Can identify languages on the basis of identification of linguistic forms


S2.5.3                                                                        Important


Can identify languages on the basis of known words/expressions


S2.5.4                                                                        Important


Can identify languages on the basis of grammatical markers


S2.6                                                                          Important


Can identify pragmatic functions


S2.7                                                                          Important


Can identify discourse types


S2.8                                                                          Important


Can identify cultural specifities/references/affinities


S2.8.2                                                                        Important


Can identify specificities of/references to/affinities of one’s own culture


S2.9                                                                          Important


Can identify communicative variations engendered by cultural differences


S2.10                                                                        Important


Can identify specific forms of behavior linked to cultural differences


S2.11                                                                        Important


Can identify cultural prejudice


S3                                                                             Essential


Can compare linguistic/cultural features of different languages/cultures (Can perceive/establish linguistic cultural proximity and distance)


S3.1                                                                          Essential


Can apply procedures for making comparisons


S3.2                                                                          Essential


Can perceive proximity and distance (can discriminate aurally)


S3.5                                                                          Essential


Can perceive global similarities between two/several languages


S3.7                                                                          Essential


Can compare the grammatical functioning of different languages


S3.8                                                                          Essential


Can compare the grammatical functions of different languages


S3.9                                                                          Essential


Can compare communicative cultures


S3.9.1                                                                        Essential


Can compare discourse types in different languages


S3.9.1.1                                                                     Essential


Can compare discourse types in one’s own language to those of another


S3.10                                                                        Essential


Can compare features of a culture (perceive the cultural proximity/distance)


S3.10.3                                                                      Essential


Can compare meanings corresponding to cultural features (ie time)


S3.10.4                                                                      Essential


Can compare different cultural practices


S4                                                                             Useful


Can talk about/explain certain aspects of one’s own language/culture/other languages/other cultures


S4.4                                                                          Important


Can agree about cultural diversity (advantages, disadvantages, difficulties) and construct his/her own opinion about it


S5                                                                             Essential


Can use knowledge and skills already mastered in one language in activities of comprehension/production in another language


S5.1                                                                          Essential


Can construct a set of hypotheses about affinities or differences between languages


S5.2                                                                          Essential


Can identify transfer points/features of a language which allow a transfer of knowledge between languages/ within a language


S5.3                                                                          Essential


Can make Interlingua transfers/transfers of recognition, which establish a link between an identified feature of a known language and a feature one seeks to identify in an unfamiliar language/transfers of production from known language to an unfamiliar one


S5.4                                                                          Important


Can carry out Interlingua transfers


S5.5                                                                          Important


Can check the validity of transfers that have been made




Attention/Sensitivity/Curiosity/Positive acceptance/Openness/Respect/Valorization with respect to languages cultures and the diversity of languages and cultures


A2                                                                            Important


Sensitivity to the existence of other languages/cultures/persons/to the existence of linguistic/cultural/human diversity


A2.4                                                                          Important


Being sensitive both to differences and to similarities between different languages/cultures


A2.6                                                                          Important


Sensitivity to the relativity of linguistic/cultural customs


A3                                                                            Essential


Curiosity about/interest in foreign languages/cultures/ persons//pluricultural contexts// the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general


A3.2                                                                          Essential


Curiosity about discovering how one’s own/other languages/cultures work


A3.3                                                                          Important


Interest in discovering other perspectives of interpretation of familiar/unfamiliar phenomena both in one’s own culture/language and in other cultures/languages/cultural (linguistic) practices


A3.4                                                                          Useful


Interest in understanding what happens in intercultural/Plurilingual interactions.


A4                                                                            Essential


Positive acceptance of linguistic/cultural diversity/of what is different


A4.4                                                                          Important


Accepting the existence of other modes of interpretation of reality/other values/systems (linguistic, implicit, the meaning of behaviors, etc…)


A4.6                                                                          Important


Reacting without an a priori negative slant to bilingual talk (ways of speaking which resort to two languages used alternately, essentially between speakers sharing the same plurilingual repertoire


A4.7                                                                          Important


Reacting without an a priori negative slant to mixed cultural practices


A4.8                                                                          Essential


Accepting the spread and complexity of linguistic/cultural differences (and consequently, the fact that one cannot know everything)


A4.8.1                                                                       Essential


Acceptance of the linguistic/cultural complexity of individual/collective identities as a legitimate characteristic of groups and societies


A5                                                                            Important


Openness to the diversity of languages/people/cultures of the world/to the diversity as such (to difference itself)


A5.1                                                                          Important


Empathy (openness) to alternate choices


 A6                                                                            Important


Respect/regard for foreign/different languages/cultures/persons// for linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment// for linguistic/cultural/human diversity as such (in general)


A6.1                                                                          Important


Respect for differences and diversity (in a plurilingual and pluricultural environment)


A6.2                                                                          Important


Valuing linguistic/cultural contacts


A6.2.1                                                                       Important


Considering that loans from other languages/cultures become part of the reality of a language/culture and may contribute to enriching it


A6.3                                                                          Useful


Having regard for bilingualism


A6.4                                                                          Important


Considering all languages as equal in dignity


A6.5                                                                          Useful


Having respect for human dignity and universal human rights


 A6.5.2                                                                       Useful


Considering each language/culture as a means of human development, of social inclusion and as an indispensable condition in the exercise of citizenship




Disposition/Motivation/Will/Desire to engage in activity related to languages/cultures and to the diversity of languages and cultures


A7                                                                            Important   


Disposition/motivation with respect to linguistic/cultural diversity/plurality


A7.2                                                                          Important


Readiness to engage in pluralistic communication while following the rituals and conventions appropriate to context


A7.3                                                                          Important


Readiness to face difficulties linked to plurilingual/pluricultural situations and interactions


A7.3.2                                                                       Important


Readiness to assume the anxiety, which is inherent to plurilingual/pluricultural situations and interactions


A7.3.4                                                                       Important


Readiness to experience a threat to one’s identity (to feel disindividualized)


A7.3.5                                                                       Useful


Readiness to be considered as an outsider


A7.4                                                                          Useful


Disposition to share one’s linguistic/cultural knowledge with others


A7.5                                                                          Important


Motivation to study/compare the functioning of different languages (structures, vocabulary, systems of writing)/ cultures


A8                                                                            Essential


A wish/will to be involved/to act in connection with linguistic or cultural diversity/plurality// in a plurilingual or pluricultural environment


A8.1                                                                          Important


A will to take up the challenge of linguistic/cultural diversity (going beyond simple tolerance, towards deeper levels of understanding and respect, towards acceptance)


A8.2                                                                          Important


Participating consciously in the construction of one’s own plurilingual/pluricultural competence/voluntary involvement in the development of the process of plurilingual/pluricultural socialization


 A8.3                                                                          Useful


A will to build/to participate in a shared language culture (built on knowledge, values and attitudes to language, shared in general by the community)


A8.4                                                                          Useful


A will to construct a language culture solidly based on tested knowledge of languages and language


A8.4.1                                                                       Useful


A commitment to have at one’s disposal a linguistic culture which helps to better understand languages (where languages come from, how they evolve, what makes them similar or different)


A8.4.2                                                                       Important


A will to verbalize/discuss representations one may have of certain linguistic phenomena (loans/mixing of languages)


A8.6                                                                          Useful


A will/wish to be involved in communication with persons from different cultures/to come into contact with others


A8.7                                                                          Important


A will to assume the implications/consequences of one’s decisions and behaviours (ethical dimension responsibility)


A8.8                                                                          Important


A will to learn from others


A9 – A12


Attitudes/Stances of questioning –


Distanciation – An avoidance attachment style used more for distancing strategies such as denying or minimizing their internal distress.


Decentration – Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development where a child slowly moves away from an egocentric world to a world shared with others.


A9                                                                            Important


An attitude of critical questioning/ a critical position towards language/ culture in general


A9.1                                                                          Important


A will to ask questions relative to languages/cultures


A9.2                                                                          Important


Considering languages/cultures//linguistic/cultural diversity//linguistic/cultural mixes//the learning of languages// their importance// their utility as issues about which questions and discussions may arise


A9.2.4.1                                                                     Useful


Having a critical attitude to the use of language as an instrument of manipulation


 A9.3                                                                          Important


A will to question the values and presuppositions of the cultural products and practices of one’s own environment/of other cultural contexts


A9.3.1                                                                       Important


Ability to assume a critical distance from information and opinions produced by media/common sense/one’s interlocutors about one’s own community/other communities


A9.4                                                                          Important


A critical attitude to one’s own values (norms) the values (norms) of others


A10                                                                          Useful


A will to construct informed knowledge/ representations


A10.1                                                                        Useful


A will to possess a more considered/less normative view of linguistic/cultural phenomena (loans/linguistics or cultural mixes)


A10.2                                                                        Useful


A will to take complexity into account/to avoid generalisations about every object concerned in the field of languages and cultures


 A10.3                                                                        Important


A will to take critical distance from conventional attitudes about/concerning cultural differences


A10.4                                                                        Useful


A will to overcome barriers/to be open in relation to languages/cultures/communication in general


A11                                                                          Important


A disposition/a will to suspend one’s judgment/one’s acquired representations/one’s prejudices


A11.1                                                                        Essential


Being disposed to distance oneself from one’s own language/culture//look at one’s own language from the outside


A11.2                                                                        Essential


Disposition to suspend judgment about one’s own culture/other issues


A11.3                                                                        Important


A will to combat (deconstruct/overcome) one’s own prejudices towards other languages/cultures and their speakers/members


A11.3.2                                                                     Important


Being ready to adopt attitudes to diversity which conform to knowledge one may acquire/may have acquired from it


A12                                                                          Essential


Disposition to starting a process of linguistic/cultural decantation/relativisation


A12.1                                                                        Important


Being ready to distance oneself from one’s own cultural perspective and to be attentive to the effects that this may have on one’s own perception of phenomena


A12.2                                                                        Important


Accepting to suspend or to question one’s practices/behaviours/values and adopt behaviours/attitudes/ values other than those which have so far constituted one’s linguistic and cultural identity




Readiness to adapt/Self-confidence/sense of familiarity


A13                                                                          Important


A will/disposition to adapt oneself/Flexibility


A13.1                                                                        Important


A will to adapt/to be flexible in one’s own behaviour when interacting with persons who are linguistically/culturally different from oneself


A13.2                                                                        Useful


Being ready to go through the different stages of the process of adaptation to another culture


A13.2.2                                                                     Important


A will to adapt one’s own behaviour to what one knows/learns about communication in the host culture


A13.3                                                                        Important


Flexibility in one’s own stance (behaviour/attitude) vis a vis foreign languages


A13.4                                                                        Important


A will to face different manners of perception/expression/ behaviour


A13.5                                                                        Useful


Tolerating ambiguity


A14                                                                          Useful


Having self-confidence/feeling at ease


A14.1                                                                        Important


Feeling capable of facing the complexity/the diversity of contexts/of speakers


A14.2                                                                        Useful


Being self-confident in a situation of communication (expression/reception/interaction/mediation)


A14.3                                                                        Useful


Having confidence in one’s own abilities in relation to languages (their study/their use)


A14.3.1                                                                     Essential


Confidence in one’s own capacities of observation/of analysis of little known or unknown languages


A15                                                                          Important


A feeling of familiarity


A15.1                                                                        Important


A feeling of familiarity linked to similarities/proximities between languages/between cultures


A15.2                                                                        Essential


Considering every language/culture as something accessible (some aspects of which are already known)


A15.2.1                                                                     Important


A (progressive) feeling of familiarity within new characteristics/practices of a linguistic or cultural order (new sound systems, new ways of writing, new behaviours)






A16                                                                          Important


Assuming one’s own (linguistic/cultural) identity


 A16.1                                                                        Useful


Being sensitive to the complexity/the diversity of the rapport which every person has with language/languages/cultures


A16.2                                                                        Important


Accepting a social identity in which the languages one speaks/the culture one ascribes to occupy an (important) position


A16.3                                                                        Important


Considering one’s own historical identity with confidence/pride but also while respecting other identities


A16.4                                                                        Important


Being attentive (vigilant) to the dangers of cultural impoverishment/alienation that contact with another/other (dominant) language/cultures may bring about


A16.5                                                                        Useful


Being attentive to the possibilities of cultural openness/enrichment that contact with another/other language/cultures may bring about




Attitudes to learning


A17                                                                          Important


Sensitivity to experience



A17.2                                                                        Important


According value to linguistic knowledge/skills irrespective of the context in which they have been acquired (within school/outside school)


A18                                                                          Important


A motivation to learn languages (of schooling/family/foreign /regional…)


A18.3                                                                        Useful


Being disposed to follow up the linguistic learning started within a formal teaching context in an autonomous fashion


A18.4                                                                        Useful


Disposition to learn language throughout one’s life


A19                                                                          Important


Attitudes aiming to construct pertinent and informed representations for learning


A19.1                                                                        Important


Disposition to modify one’s own knowledge/representations about the learning of languages when these appear to be unfavourable to learning (negative prejudice)


A19.2                                                                        Useful


Interest in learning techniques/in one’s own learning style


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