Stage 1 – Grade 3 – 4 – Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude.

 Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude

For Grades 3-4

Knowledge

 

K8                                                                   Essential

 

Cultures: General characteristics

 

Possesses Knowledge about what cultures are/how they work.

 

K8.2                                                                 Useful

 

Knows that a number of cultures, more or less different exist.

 

K8.4                                                                 Essential

 

Knows that the members of each culture define (partially) specific rules/norms/values about social practices/behaviors.

 

K8.4.2                                                              Essential

 

Knows that some of these norms may constitute taboos.

 

K8.4.3                                                              Important

 

Knows that these rules/norms/values may be more or less rigid/flexible, yet may evolve in time.

 

K8.5                                                                 Important

 

Knows that certain social practices in each culture may be arbitrary (rites/language/table manners)

 

K8.6.1                                                              Essential

 

Knows that facts/behaviors/speech may be perceived/understood differently by members of different cultures.

 

K8.7                                                                 Important

 

Knows that culture influences behaviors/social practices/personal evaluations (of oneself/of others)

 

K9                                                                   Important

 

Culture and social diversity

 

Knows that cultural diversity and social diversity are closely linked.

 

K9.3                                                                 Important

 

Knows that every person forms part of at least one cultural community, and that many persons form part of more than one cultural community.

 

K9.4                                                                 Important

 

Knows characteristics of their own situation/cultural environment.

 

K10                                                                 Important

 

Cultures and intercultural relations

 

Knows the role of culture in intercultural relations and communication.

 

K10.1                                                               Essential

 

Knows that customs/norms/values specific to each culture make behavior/personal decisions complex within a context of cultural diversity.

 

K10.2                                                               Important

 

Knows that culture and identity influence communicative interactions.

 

K10.2.1                                                            Important

 

Knows that behavior/words and the ways in which they are interpreted/evaluated are linked to cultural references.

 

K10.3                                                               Important

 

Knows that cultural differences may underlie verbal/non verbal communication/interaction.

 

K10.3.1                                                            Important

 

Knows that difficulties in communication caused by cultural differences may result in cultural shock/cultural fatigue.

 

K10.4                                                               Essential

 

Knows that intercultural relations and communication are influenced by knowledge/representations one has of other cultures and those that others have of one’s own culture.

 

K10.4.1                                                            Important

 

Knows that knowledge one has of cultures often include stereotypes (a simplified and sometimes useful way of grasping one aspect of reality, liable to lead to oversimplification and generalization.

 

K10.4.2                                                            Essential

 

Knows that some stereotypes of cultural origin may affect intercultural relations and communication.

 

K10.4.3                                                            Important

 

Is aware of the existence of cultural prejudice.

 

K10.5                                                               Essential

 

Knows that the interpretations that others give to one’s behavior may be different from that which that same person gives to that same behavior.

 

K10.5.1                                                            Essential

 

Knows that one’s own cultural practices may be interpreted by others through the application of stereotypes.

 

K10.7                                                               Essential

 

Knows (is aware of) one’s own reactions to linguistic/ language/cultural differences.

 

K10.9                                                               Essential

 

Have cultural references, which structure ones knowledge and perception of the world/other cultures, as well as one’s own intercultural social and communicative practices.

 

K11                                                                 Important

 

The Evolution of cultures

 

Knows that cultures are continuously evolving.

 

K11.1                                                               Important

 

Knows that cultural practices/ values are created by and evolve under the influence of different factors (history/the environment/the actions of members of the community)

 

K11.1.3.1                                                         Important

 

Knows that certain historical facts (linked to relations between races/nations to migrations…)/geographical facts which have influenced/influence the creation of evolution of certain cultures.

 

K11.2                                                               Useful

 

Knows that certain cultures are linked by particular historical relationships (common origin, old contacts, etc…)

 

K11.3                                                               Important

 

Knows that cultures continuously exchange elements between themselves.

  

K11.3.2                                                            Important

 

Knows that some cultural elements which one’s culture has borrowed from others, as well as the history of these elements.

 

K11.3.3                                                            Important

 

Knows some elements, which one’s own culture has given to others.

 

K12                                                                 Essential

 

The diversity of cultures

 

Knows several phenomena relative to the diversity of cultures.

 

K12.1                                                               Important

 

Knows that there is (still) a great multiplicity of cultures all over the world.

 

K12.1.2                                                            Useful

 

Knows that in connection with a diversity of cultures, there exists a great plurality of values/norms.

 

K12.3                                                               Essential

 

Knows that one can find an extensive variety of situations of contact between cultures.

 

K12.4                                                               Essential

 

Knows that different cultures are continuously in contact in our immediate environment.

 

K12.5                                                               Essential

 

Knows that diversity of cultures does not imply superiority/inferiority of any one in relation to the others.

 

K13                                                                 Essential

 

Resemblances and differences between cultures

 

Knows that resemblances and differences exist between (sub) cultures.

 

K13.1                                                               Essential

 

Knows that each culture has (partially) its own way of functioning

 

K13.2.1                                                            Important

 

Knows some resemblances/differences between one’s own culture and other cultures.

 

K13.2                                                               Essential

 

Knows that there may be resemblances/differences between cultures.

 

K13.2.2                                                            Important

 

Knows some resemblances/differences between social practices/customs/values/means of expression between different cultures.

 

K13.2.4                                                            Important

 

Knows some differences in verbal/nonverbal expression of feelings/emotions in different cultures.

 

K13.2.3                                                            Important

 

Knows some resemblances/differences between the cultures of different social/generational/regional groups.

 

K13.2.3.1                                                         Important

 

Knows some resemblances/differences between the cultures of different social/generational/regional groups in one’s immediate environment.

 

K13.2.5                                                            Important

 

Knows some differences in the verbal/nonverbal expressions of social relations in different cultures.

 

K14                                                                 Essential

 

Culture, language & identity

 

Knows that identity is constructed, amongst other things, in relation to one or more linguistic/cultural affiliations.

 

K14.3                                                               Essential

 

Knows that one can have a multiple/plural/composite identity

  

K14.3.1                                                            Important

 

Knows that such an identity may be difficult to assume/live but that it may be lived in a perfectly harmonious way.

 

K14.4                                                               Important

 

Knows that bi/pluricultural bi/plurilingual identities exist.

 

K14.5                                                               Important

 

Knows of the existence of dangers of cultural weakening/alienation/possibilities of cultural enrichment, which may come about as a result of contact with other (dominant) languages/cultures.

 

K14.6                                                               Important

 

Knows that one’s own cultural identity may be complex (due to personal/family/national history…)

 

K14.6.1                                                            Important

 

Knows some major elements of one’s own cultural identity

 

K15                                                                 Essential

 

Culture and acquisition/learning

 

Knows how one acquires/learns a culture.

 

K15.2                                                               Important

 

Knows that one can apprehend a new culture as long as one wants to and accepts the values linked to that culture.

 

K15.4                                                               Important

 

Knows that it is normal to commit errors of behavior/of interpretation of behaviors, when one does not sufficiently know a culture and that being aware of this opens the way to learning

 

Skills

 

S1                                                                    Important

 

Can observe/analyze linguistic elements/cultural phenomena of languages/cultures which are more or less familiar

 

S1.1                                                                 Useful

 

Can make use of/masters processes of observation/analysis (breaking down into elements/classifying/establishing relationships between them)

 

S1.1.3                                                               Essential

 

Can resort to a known language/culture with a view to development of analysis of another language/culture

 

S1.1.4                                                               Essential

 

Can observe different languages/cultures simultaneously in order to hypotheses analyzing phenomena in a particular language/culture

 

S1.2                                                                 Important

 

Can observe/analyze/sounds (in languages little known or not at all)

 

S1.2.4                                                               Important

 

Can analyze a phonological system (isolate/classify units)

 

S1.3                                                                 Important

 

Can observe/analyze writing systems (in languages little known or not at all)

 

S1.3.1                                                               Important

 

Can isolate units of script/sentences/words/minimal units

 

S1.4                                                                 Useful

 

Can observe/analyze syntactic and or morphological structure

 

S1.4.1                                                               Useful

 

Can divide compound words into their constituent parts

 

S1.5                                                                 Useful

 

Can analyze pragmatic functions (in a language which is little known/familiar or not known/familiar at all)

 

S1.5.1                                                               Useful

 

Can analyze the links between pragmatic forms and functions (speech/acts)

 

S1.5.2                                                               Useful

 

Can analyze the relationship between form and context/situation

 

S1.6                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze communicative repertoires which are plurilingual in a plurilingual situation

 

S1.7                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze the cultural origin of different aspects of communication

 

S1.8                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze the cultural origins of certain behaviors

 

S1.9                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze specific social phenomena as being the consequence of cultural differences

 

S2                                                                    Important

 

Can identify linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in language/cultures, which are more or less familiar

 

S2.1                                                                 Important

 

Can identify sound forms (has aural recognition skills)

 

S2.1.1                                                               Important

 

Can identify simple phonetic elements (sounds)

 

S2.1.3                                                               Important

 

Can identify a morpheme or a word whilst listening

 

S2.2                                                                 Important

 

Can identify written forms

 

S2.2.1                                                               Important

 

Can identify elementary graphic forms (letters, ideograms, punctuation marks…)

 

S2.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can make use of linguistic evidence to identify words of different origin

 

S2.4                                                                 Important

 

Can identify grammatical categories/functions/markers (article, noun…)

 

S2.5                                                                 Important

 

Can identify languages on the basis of identification of linguistic forms

 

S2.6                                                                 Important

 

Can identify pragmatic functions

 

S2.7                                                                 Important

 

Can identify discourse types

 

S2.8                                                                 Important

 

Can identify cultural specifities/references/affinities

 

S3                                                                    Essential

 

Can compare linguistic/cultural features of different languages/cultures (Can perceive different linguistic cultural proximity and distance)

 

S3.1                                                                 Essential

 

Can apply procedures for making comparisons

 

S3.1.1                                                               Essential

 

Can formulate hypotheses about linguistic/cultural proximity

 

S3.2                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive proximity and distance (can discriminate aurally)

 

S3.2.2                                                               Essential

 

Can perceive proximity between prosodic (the structure of words and verse ADJ) features

 

S3.2.4                                                               Essential

 

Can compare languages aurally

 

S3.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive proximity of distance between graphic forms

 

S3.3.1                                                               Essential

 

Can perceive similarities/differences between graphic forms

 

S3.3.2                                                               Essential

 

Can perceive proximity/distance between graphic features at morpheme/word level

 

S3.4                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive lexical proximity

 

S3.4.1                                                               Essential

 

Can perceive direct lexical proximity

 

S3.5                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive global similarities between two/several languages

 

S3.6                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare the relationships between sounds and script in different languages

 

S3.7                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare grammatical functioning of different languages

 

S3.8                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare the grammatical functions of different languages

 

S3.9                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare communicative cultures

 

S3.10                                                               Essential

 

Can compare features of a culture (perceive the cultural proximity/distance)

 

S4                                                                    Useful

 

Can talk about/explain certain aspects of one’s own language/culture/other languages/other cultures

 

S4.1                                                                 Important

 

Can construct explanations meant for a foreign instructor about a feature of one’s own culture/meant for an interlocutor from one’s own culture about a feature of another culture.

 

S4.2                                                                 Important

 

Can explain misunderstandings

 

S4.3                                                                 Useful

 

Can explain one’s own knowledge of languages

 

S5                                                                    Essential

 

Can use knowledge and skills already mastered in one language in activities of comprehension/production in another language

 

S5.1                                                                 Essential

 

Can construct a set of hypotheses about affinities or differences between languages

 

S5.2                                                                 Essential

 

Can identify transfer points/features of a language which allow a transfer of knowledge between languages/within a language

 

S5.2.1                                                               Essential

 

Can compare transfer points in the target language with those in languages, which are mentally activated.

 

S5.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can make interlingual transfers/transfers of recognition, which establish a link between an identified feature of a known language and a feature one seeks to identify in an unfamiliar language/transfers of production from a known language to an unfamiliar one.

 

S5.3.2                                                               Important

 

Can carry out transfers of (semantic) content

 

S5.3.4                                                               Important

 

Can establish pragmatic transfers (can establish a link between communicative conventions in one’s own language and those in another language)

 

S5.4                                                                 Important

 

Can carry out intralingua transfers

 

S5.5                                                                 Important

 

Can check the validity of transfers, which have been made

 

S6                                                                    Important

 

Can interact in situations of contact between languages/cultures

 

S6.1                                                                 Essential

 

Can communicate in bi/plurilingual groups taking into account the repertoire of one’s interlocutors

 

S6.1.1                                                               Important

 

Can reformulate by simplifying the structure of the utterance/by varying the vocabulary/by making an effort to pronounce more clearly

 

S6.2                                                                 Important

 

Can ask for help when communicating in bi/plurilingual groups

 

S6.2.1                                                               Important

 

Can ask an interlocutor to reformulate what has been said

 

S6.2.3                                                               Important

 

Can ask an interlocutor to switch to another language

 

S6.2.2                                                               Important

 

Can ask an interlocutor to repeat what has been said in a simpler way

 

S6.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can communicate while taking sociolinguistic/sociocultural differences into account

 

S6.3.3                                                               Important

 

Can resort to different speech registers according to situation

 

S6.4                                                                 Essential

 

Can communicate between languages

 

S6.5                                                                 Essential

 

Can activate bilingual or plurilingual communication in relevant situations

 

S6.5.1                                                               Essential

 

Can vary/alternate languages/linguistic codes/modes of communication

 

S7                                                                    Important

 

Can assume ownership of (learn) linguistic features of usage/cultural references or behaviors which belong to more or less familiar languages & cultures

 

S7.1                                                                 Important

 

Can memorize unfamiliar features

 

S7.2                                                                 Useful

 

Can reproduce unfamiliar features of a language

 

S7.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can gain from previously acquired knowledge about languages and cultures during learning

 

S7.3.2                                                               Essential

 

Can use knowledge and skills acquired in one language to learn another

 

S7.3.3                                                               Important

 

Can use knowledge and skills acquired in one language to develop his/her knowledge and skills in that same language (through intralingua comparison, induction, deduction…)

 

S7.4                                                                 Essential

 

Can gain from transfers made /successful/unsuccessful) between a known language and another language in order to acquire features of that other language

 

S7.5                                                                 Essential

 

Can get ownership of a system for identifying correspondences and non-correspondences between languages known to varying degrees

 

S7.6                                                                 Useful

 

Can learn autonomously

 

S7.6.1.2                                                            Important

 

Can resort to other persons in order to learn (can ask an interlocutor to correct mistakes/can ask for information or explanations)

 

S7.6.1                                                               Useful

 

Can make use of resources, which facilitate learning in matters of languages and cultures

 

S7.7                                                                 Important

 

Can manage his/her learning in a reflective manner

 

S7.7.2                                                               Important

 

Can deliberately apply learning strategies

 

S7.7.3                                                               Important

 

Can benefit from previous learning experiences in new situations (Can transfer learning)

 

S7.7.4                                                               Important

 

Can observe/check his/her own learning process

 

Attitude

 

A1 – A6

 

Attention/Sensitivity/Curiosity /Positive acceptance/Openness/Respect/Valorization

 

A1                                                                   Important

 

Attention to foreign languages/cultures/persons/to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in the environment/to language in general to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.

 

A1.1                                                                 Useful  

                     

Attention to language (to semiotic manifestations)/to culture/to persons in general

 

A2                                                                   Important

 

Sensitivity to the existence of other languages/cultures/persons/to the existence of linguistic/cultural/human diversity

 

A2.1                                                                 Important

 

Sensitivity towards one’s own language/culture and other languages/cultures

 

A2.2                                                                 Useful

 

Sensitivity to linguistic/cultural differences

 

A2.2.3                                                              Important

 

Being aware of traces of otherness in a language (for example in loan words)/a culture

 

A2.5                                                                 Important

 

Sensitivity to pluralingualism and plurafication in the immediate or remote environment

 

A3                                                                   Essential

 

Curiosity about/interest in foreign languages/cultures/persons//pluricultural contexts//the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.

 

A3.1                                                                 Essential

 

Curiosity about a multilingual/multicultural environment

 

A3.2                                                                 Essential

 

Curiosity about discovering how (one’s own/other) languages/culture works

 

A3.2.1                                                              Essential

 

Being curious about (and wishing) to understand the similarities and differences between one’s own language/culture and the target language/culture

 

A4                                                                   Essential

 

Positive acceptance of linguistic/cultural diversity/of what is different

 

A4.1                                                                 Important

 

Mastery of one’s resistance/reticence towards what is linguistically/culturally different

 

A4.2                                                                 Important

 

Accepting the fact that another language/culture may function differently from one’s own language/culture

 

A4.2.1                                                              Important

 

Accepting the fact that another language can organize the construction of meaning on phonological/semantic distinctions (syntactic constructions which differ from those of one’s own language

 

A4.2.2                                                              Important

 

Accepting the fact that another culture may make use of different cultural behaviors

 

A4.3                                                                 Important

 

Accepting the fact that another language/culture may include elements which differ from those of one’s own language/culture

 

A4.3.2                                                              Important

 

Accepting the existence of signs and typographies which differ from those of one’s own language

 

A4.5                                                                 Important

 

Acceptance of the importance of all languages/cultures and the different places they occupy

 

A5                                                                   Important

 

Openness to the diversity of languages/people/cultures of the world/to the diversity as (to difference itself)

 

A5.2                                                                 Important    

                                                

Openness to allophonic speakers and their languages

 

A5.3                                                                 Important

 

Openness to languages and cultures

 

A5.3.2                                                              Useful

 

Openness towards foreign languages/cultures taught at school

 

A6                                                                   Important

 

Respect/regard for foreign/different languages/cultures/persons/for the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//for linguistic/cultural human diversity as such (in general)

 

A6.1                                                                 Important

 

Respect for differences and diversity (in a plurilingual and pluricultural environment)

 

A6.5                                                                 Useful

 

Having respect for human dignity and universal human rights

 

A6.5.1                                                              Important

 

Respecting each individuals language and culture

 

A7 – A8

 

Disposition/Motivation/Will/Desire to engage in activity related to languages/cultures and to the diversity of languages and cultures

 

A7                                                                   Important

 

Disposition/motivation with respect to linguistic/cultural diversity/plurality

 

A7.1                                                                 Important

 

Disposition to plurilingual/pluricultural socialization

 

A8                                                                   Essential

 

A wish/will to be involved/to act in connection with linguistic or cultural diversity/plurality//in a plurilingual or pluricultural environment

 

A8.5                                                                 Important

 

A wish to discover other languages/other cultures/other peoples

 

A8.5.1                                                              Useful

 

A wish to encounter other languages/other cultures/ other peoples linked to the personal or familiar history of persons one knows

 

A9 – A12

 

Attitudes/Stances of questioning –

 

Distanciation – An avoidance attachment style used more for distancing strategies such as denying or minimizing their internal distress.

 

Decentration – Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development where a child slowly moves away from an egocentric world to a world shared with others.

 

A9                                                                   Important

 

An attitude of critical questioning/a critical position towards language/culture in general

 

A9.1                                                                 Important

 

A will to ask questions relative to language/cultures

 

A9.2                                                                 Important

 

Considering languages/cultures/linguistic/cultural diversity//linguistic/cultural mixes//the learning of languages//their importance//their utility as issues about which questions and discussions may arise.

 

A9.2.1                                                              Important

 

Considering the way languages and their different units (phonemes/words/sentences/texts) function as an object of analysis and reflection

 

A9.2.2                                                              Important

 

Considering the way cultures and their domains (institutions/rituals/uses) as an object of analysis and reflection

 

A16

 

Identity

 

A16                                                                 Important

 

Assuming one’s own (linguistic/cultural) identity

 

A16.2                                                               Important

 

Accepting a social identity in which the languages one speaks/the culture one ascribes to occupy an (important) position

 

A16.2.2                                                            Important

 

Accepting a bi/plurilingual/bi/pluricultural identity

 

A16.3                                                               Important

 

Considering one’s own historical identity with confidence/pride but also while respecting others identities

 

A17 – A19

 

Attitudes to learning

 

A17                                                                 Important

 

Sensitivity to experience

 

A17.1                                                               Important

 

Being sensitive to the extent/the value/the interest of one’s own linguistic/cultural competences

 

A17.2                                                               Important

 

According value to linguistic knowledge/skills irrespective of the context in which they have been acquired (within school/outside school)

 

A17.4                                                               Useful

 

Having confidence in one’s own abilities at language learning (in one’s abilities to extend one’s own linguistic competences

 

A18                                                                 Important

 

A motivation to learn languages (of schooling/ family/foreign/regional…)

 

A18.1                                                               Important

 

A positive attitude towards the learning of languages (and the speakers who speak them)

 

A18.1.2                                                            Important

 

A wish to perfect one’s mastery of the maternal language/ of the language of schooling

 

A18.1.3                                                            Important

 

A desire to learn other languages

 

A18.1.4                                                            Important

 

An interest in the learning of languages other than those for which teaching is actually available

 

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