Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude
For Grades 3-4
Cultures: General characteristics
Possesses Knowledge about what cultures are/how they work.
Knows that a number of cultures, more or less different exist.
Knows that the members of each culture define (partially) specific rules/norms/values about social practices/behaviors.
Knows that some of these norms may constitute taboos.
Knows that these rules/norms/values may be more or less rigid/flexible, yet may evolve in time.
Knows that certain social practices in each culture may be arbitrary (rites/language/table manners)
Knows that facts/behaviors/speech may be perceived/understood differently by members of different cultures.
Knows that culture influences behaviors/social practices/personal evaluations (of oneself/of others)
Culture and social diversity
Knows that cultural diversity and social diversity are closely linked.
Knows that every person forms part of at least one cultural community, and that many persons form part of more than one cultural community.
Knows characteristics of their own situation/cultural environment.
Cultures and intercultural relations
Knows the role of culture in intercultural relations and communication.
Knows that customs/norms/values specific to each culture make behavior/personal decisions complex within a context of cultural diversity.
Knows that culture and identity influence communicative interactions.
Knows that behavior/words and the ways in which they are interpreted/evaluated are linked to cultural references.
Knows that cultural differences may underlie verbal/non verbal communication/interaction.
Knows that difficulties in communication caused by cultural differences may result in cultural shock/cultural fatigue.
Knows that intercultural relations and communication are influenced by knowledge/representations one has of other cultures and those that others have of one’s own culture.
Knows that knowledge one has of cultures often include stereotypes (a simplified and sometimes useful way of grasping one aspect of reality, liable to lead to oversimplification and generalization.
Knows that some stereotypes of cultural origin may affect intercultural relations and communication.
Is aware of the existence of cultural prejudice.
Knows that the interpretations that others give to one’s behavior may be different from that which that same person gives to that same behavior.
Knows that one’s own cultural practices may be interpreted by others through the application of stereotypes.
Knows (is aware of) one’s own reactions to linguistic/ language/cultural differences.
Have cultural references, which structure ones knowledge and perception of the world/other cultures, as well as one’s own intercultural social and communicative practices.
The Evolution of cultures
Knows that cultures are continuously evolving.
Knows that cultural practices/ values are created by and evolve under the influence of different factors (history/the environment/the actions of members of the community)
Knows that certain historical facts (linked to relations between races/nations to migrations…)/geographical facts which have influenced/influence the creation of evolution of certain cultures.
Knows that certain cultures are linked by particular historical relationships (common origin, old contacts, etc…)
Knows that cultures continuously exchange elements between themselves.
Knows that some cultural elements which one’s culture has borrowed from others, as well as the history of these elements.
Knows some elements, which one’s own culture has given to others.
The diversity of cultures
Knows several phenomena relative to the diversity of cultures.
Knows that there is (still) a great multiplicity of cultures all over the world.
Knows that in connection with a diversity of cultures, there exists a great plurality of values/norms.
Knows that one can find an extensive variety of situations of contact between cultures.
Knows that different cultures are continuously in contact in our immediate environment.
Knows that diversity of cultures does not imply superiority/inferiority of any one in relation to the others.
Resemblances and differences between cultures
Knows that resemblances and differences exist between (sub) cultures.
Knows that each culture has (partially) its own way of functioning
Knows some resemblances/differences between one’s own culture and other cultures.
Knows that there may be resemblances/differences between cultures.
Knows some resemblances/differences between social practices/customs/values/means of expression between different cultures.
Knows some differences in verbal/nonverbal expression of feelings/emotions in different cultures.
Knows some resemblances/differences between the cultures of different social/generational/regional groups.
Knows some resemblances/differences between the cultures of different social/generational/regional groups in one’s immediate environment.
Knows some differences in the verbal/nonverbal expressions of social relations in different cultures.
Culture, language & identity
Knows that identity is constructed, amongst other things, in relation to one or more linguistic/cultural affiliations.
Knows that one can have a multiple/plural/composite identity
Knows that such an identity may be difficult to assume/live but that it may be lived in a perfectly harmonious way.
Knows that bi/pluricultural bi/plurilingual identities exist.
Knows of the existence of dangers of cultural weakening/alienation/possibilities of cultural enrichment, which may come about as a result of contact with other (dominant) languages/cultures.
Knows that one’s own cultural identity may be complex (due to personal/family/national history…)
Knows some major elements of one’s own cultural identity
Culture and acquisition/learning
Knows how one acquires/learns a culture.
Knows that one can apprehend a new culture as long as one wants to and accepts the values linked to that culture.
Knows that it is normal to commit errors of behavior/of interpretation of behaviors, when one does not sufficiently know a culture and that being aware of this opens the way to learning
Can observe/analyze linguistic elements/cultural phenomena of languages/cultures which are more or less familiar
Can make use of/masters processes of observation/analysis (breaking down into elements/classifying/establishing relationships between them)
Can resort to a known language/culture with a view to development of analysis of another language/culture
Can observe different languages/cultures simultaneously in order to hypotheses analyzing phenomena in a particular language/culture
Can observe/analyze/sounds (in languages little known or not at all)
Can analyze a phonological system (isolate/classify units)
Can observe/analyze writing systems (in languages little known or not at all)
Can isolate units of script/sentences/words/minimal units
Can observe/analyze syntactic and or morphological structure
Can divide compound words into their constituent parts
Can analyze pragmatic functions (in a language which is little known/familiar or not known/familiar at all)
Can analyze the links between pragmatic forms and functions (speech/acts)
Can analyze the relationship between form and context/situation
Can analyze communicative repertoires which are plurilingual in a plurilingual situation
Can analyze the cultural origin of different aspects of communication
Can analyze the cultural origins of certain behaviors
Can analyze specific social phenomena as being the consequence of cultural differences
Can identify linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in language/cultures, which are more or less familiar
Can identify sound forms (has aural recognition skills)
Can identify simple phonetic elements (sounds)
Can identify a morpheme or a word whilst listening
Can identify written forms
Can identify elementary graphic forms (letters, ideograms, punctuation marks…)
Can make use of linguistic evidence to identify words of different origin
Can identify grammatical categories/functions/markers (article, noun…)
Can identify languages on the basis of identification of linguistic forms
Can identify pragmatic functions
Can identify discourse types
Can identify cultural specifities/references/affinities
Can compare linguistic/cultural features of different languages/cultures (Can perceive different linguistic cultural proximity and distance)
Can apply procedures for making comparisons
Can formulate hypotheses about linguistic/cultural proximity
Can perceive proximity and distance (can discriminate aurally)
Can perceive proximity between prosodic (the structure of words and verse ADJ) features
Can compare languages aurally
Can perceive proximity of distance between graphic forms
Can perceive similarities/differences between graphic forms
Can perceive proximity/distance between graphic features at morpheme/word level
Can perceive lexical proximity
Can perceive direct lexical proximity
Can perceive global similarities between two/several languages
Can compare the relationships between sounds and script in different languages
Can compare grammatical functioning of different languages
Can compare the grammatical functions of different languages
Can compare communicative cultures
Can compare features of a culture (perceive the cultural proximity/distance)
Can talk about/explain certain aspects of one’s own language/culture/other languages/other cultures
Can construct explanations meant for a foreign instructor about a feature of one’s own culture/meant for an interlocutor from one’s own culture about a feature of another culture.
Can explain misunderstandings
Can explain one’s own knowledge of languages
Can use knowledge and skills already mastered in one language in activities of comprehension/production in another language
Can construct a set of hypotheses about affinities or differences between languages
Can identify transfer points/features of a language which allow a transfer of knowledge between languages/within a language
Can compare transfer points in the target language with those in languages, which are mentally activated.
Can make interlingual transfers/transfers of recognition, which establish a link between an identified feature of a known language and a feature one seeks to identify in an unfamiliar language/transfers of production from a known language to an unfamiliar one.
Can carry out transfers of (semantic) content
Can establish pragmatic transfers (can establish a link between communicative conventions in one’s own language and those in another language)
Can carry out intralingua transfers
Can check the validity of transfers, which have been made
Can interact in situations of contact between languages/cultures
Can communicate in bi/plurilingual groups taking into account the repertoire of one’s interlocutors
Can reformulate by simplifying the structure of the utterance/by varying the vocabulary/by making an effort to pronounce more clearly
Can ask for help when communicating in bi/plurilingual groups
Can ask an interlocutor to reformulate what has been said
Can ask an interlocutor to switch to another language
Can ask an interlocutor to repeat what has been said in a simpler way
Can communicate while taking sociolinguistic/sociocultural differences into account
Can resort to different speech registers according to situation
Can communicate between languages
Can activate bilingual or plurilingual communication in relevant situations
Can vary/alternate languages/linguistic codes/modes of communication
Can assume ownership of (learn) linguistic features of usage/cultural references or behaviors which belong to more or less familiar languages & cultures
Can memorize unfamiliar features
Can reproduce unfamiliar features of a language
Can gain from previously acquired knowledge about languages and cultures during learning
Can use knowledge and skills acquired in one language to learn another
Can use knowledge and skills acquired in one language to develop his/her knowledge and skills in that same language (through intralingua comparison, induction, deduction…)
Can gain from transfers made /successful/unsuccessful) between a known language and another language in order to acquire features of that other language
Can get ownership of a system for identifying correspondences and non-correspondences between languages known to varying degrees
Can learn autonomously
Can resort to other persons in order to learn (can ask an interlocutor to correct mistakes/can ask for information or explanations)
Can make use of resources, which facilitate learning in matters of languages and cultures
Can manage his/her learning in a reflective manner
Can deliberately apply learning strategies
Can benefit from previous learning experiences in new situations (Can transfer learning)
Can observe/check his/her own learning process
A1 – A6
Attention/Sensitivity/Curiosity /Positive acceptance/Openness/Respect/Valorization
Attention to foreign languages/cultures/persons/to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in the environment/to language in general to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.
Attention to language (to semiotic manifestations)/to culture/to persons in general
Sensitivity to the existence of other languages/cultures/persons/to the existence of linguistic/cultural/human diversity
Sensitivity towards one’s own language/culture and other languages/cultures
Sensitivity to linguistic/cultural differences
Being aware of traces of otherness in a language (for example in loan words)/a culture
Sensitivity to pluralingualism and plurafication in the immediate or remote environment
Curiosity about/interest in foreign languages/cultures/persons//pluricultural contexts//the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.
Curiosity about a multilingual/multicultural environment
Curiosity about discovering how (one’s own/other) languages/culture works
Being curious about (and wishing) to understand the similarities and differences between one’s own language/culture and the target language/culture
Positive acceptance of linguistic/cultural diversity/of what is different
Mastery of one’s resistance/reticence towards what is linguistically/culturally different
Accepting the fact that another language/culture may function differently from one’s own language/culture
Accepting the fact that another language can organize the construction of meaning on phonological/semantic distinctions (syntactic constructions which differ from those of one’s own language
Accepting the fact that another culture may make use of different cultural behaviors
Accepting the fact that another language/culture may include elements which differ from those of one’s own language/culture
Accepting the existence of signs and typographies which differ from those of one’s own language
Acceptance of the importance of all languages/cultures and the different places they occupy
Openness to the diversity of languages/people/cultures of the world/to the diversity as (to difference itself)
Openness to allophonic speakers and their languages
Openness to languages and cultures
Openness towards foreign languages/cultures taught at school
Respect/regard for foreign/different languages/cultures/persons/for the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//for linguistic/cultural human diversity as such (in general)
Respect for differences and diversity (in a plurilingual and pluricultural environment)
Having respect for human dignity and universal human rights
Respecting each individuals language and culture
A7 – A8
Disposition/Motivation/Will/Desire to engage in activity related to languages/cultures and to the diversity of languages and cultures
Disposition/motivation with respect to linguistic/cultural diversity/plurality
Disposition to plurilingual/pluricultural socialization
A wish/will to be involved/to act in connection with linguistic or cultural diversity/plurality//in a plurilingual or pluricultural environment
A wish to discover other languages/other cultures/other peoples
A wish to encounter other languages/other cultures/ other peoples linked to the personal or familiar history of persons one knows
A9 – A12
Attitudes/Stances of questioning –
Distanciation – An avoidance attachment style used more for distancing strategies such as denying or minimizing their internal distress.
Decentration – Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development where a child slowly moves away from an egocentric world to a world shared with others.
An attitude of critical questioning/a critical position towards language/culture in general
A will to ask questions relative to language/cultures
Considering languages/cultures/linguistic/cultural diversity//linguistic/cultural mixes//the learning of languages//their importance//their utility as issues about which questions and discussions may arise.
Considering the way languages and their different units (phonemes/words/sentences/texts) function as an object of analysis and reflection
Considering the way cultures and their domains (institutions/rituals/uses) as an object of analysis and reflection
Assuming one’s own (linguistic/cultural) identity
Accepting a social identity in which the languages one speaks/the culture one ascribes to occupy an (important) position
Accepting a bi/plurilingual/bi/pluricultural identity
Considering one’s own historical identity with confidence/pride but also while respecting others identities
A17 – A19
Attitudes to learning
Sensitivity to experience
Being sensitive to the extent/the value/the interest of one’s own linguistic/cultural competences
According value to linguistic knowledge/skills irrespective of the context in which they have been acquired (within school/outside school)
Having confidence in one’s own abilities at language learning (in one’s abilities to extend one’s own linguistic competences
A motivation to learn languages (of schooling/ family/foreign/regional…)
A positive attitude towards the learning of languages (and the speakers who speak them)
A wish to perfect one’s mastery of the maternal language/ of the language of schooling
A desire to learn other languages
An interest in the learning of languages other than those for which teaching is actually available