Stage 1 – Grade 3 – 4 – Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude.

 Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude

For Grades 3-4



K8                                                                   Essential


Cultures: General characteristics


Possesses Knowledge about what cultures are/how they work.


K8.2                                                                 Useful


Knows that a number of cultures, more or less different exist.


K8.4                                                                 Essential


Knows that the members of each culture define (partially) specific rules/norms/values about social practices/behaviors.


K8.4.2                                                              Essential


Knows that some of these norms may constitute taboos.


K8.4.3                                                              Important


Knows that these rules/norms/values may be more or less rigid/flexible, yet may evolve in time.


K8.5                                                                 Important


Knows that certain social practices in each culture may be arbitrary (rites/language/table manners)


K8.6.1                                                              Essential


Knows that facts/behaviors/speech may be perceived/understood differently by members of different cultures.


K8.7                                                                 Important


Knows that culture influences behaviors/social practices/personal evaluations (of oneself/of others)


K9                                                                   Important


Culture and social diversity


Knows that cultural diversity and social diversity are closely linked.


K9.3                                                                 Important


Knows that every person forms part of at least one cultural community, and that many persons form part of more than one cultural community.


K9.4                                                                 Important


Knows characteristics of their own situation/cultural environment.


K10                                                                 Important


Cultures and intercultural relations


Knows the role of culture in intercultural relations and communication.


K10.1                                                               Essential


Knows that customs/norms/values specific to each culture make behavior/personal decisions complex within a context of cultural diversity.


K10.2                                                               Important


Knows that culture and identity influence communicative interactions.


K10.2.1                                                            Important


Knows that behavior/words and the ways in which they are interpreted/evaluated are linked to cultural references.


K10.3                                                               Important


Knows that cultural differences may underlie verbal/non verbal communication/interaction.


K10.3.1                                                            Important


Knows that difficulties in communication caused by cultural differences may result in cultural shock/cultural fatigue.


K10.4                                                               Essential


Knows that intercultural relations and communication are influenced by knowledge/representations one has of other cultures and those that others have of one’s own culture.


K10.4.1                                                            Important


Knows that knowledge one has of cultures often include stereotypes (a simplified and sometimes useful way of grasping one aspect of reality, liable to lead to oversimplification and generalization.


K10.4.2                                                            Essential


Knows that some stereotypes of cultural origin may affect intercultural relations and communication.


K10.4.3                                                            Important


Is aware of the existence of cultural prejudice.


K10.5                                                               Essential


Knows that the interpretations that others give to one’s behavior may be different from that which that same person gives to that same behavior.


K10.5.1                                                            Essential


Knows that one’s own cultural practices may be interpreted by others through the application of stereotypes.


K10.7                                                               Essential


Knows (is aware of) one’s own reactions to linguistic/ language/cultural differences.


K10.9                                                               Essential


Have cultural references, which structure ones knowledge and perception of the world/other cultures, as well as one’s own intercultural social and communicative practices.


K11                                                                 Important


The Evolution of cultures


Knows that cultures are continuously evolving.


K11.1                                                               Important


Knows that cultural practices/ values are created by and evolve under the influence of different factors (history/the environment/the actions of members of the community)


K11.1.3.1                                                         Important


Knows that certain historical facts (linked to relations between races/nations to migrations…)/geographical facts which have influenced/influence the creation of evolution of certain cultures.


K11.2                                                               Useful


Knows that certain cultures are linked by particular historical relationships (common origin, old contacts, etc…)


K11.3                                                               Important


Knows that cultures continuously exchange elements between themselves.


K11.3.2                                                            Important


Knows that some cultural elements which one’s culture has borrowed from others, as well as the history of these elements.


K11.3.3                                                            Important


Knows some elements, which one’s own culture has given to others.


K12                                                                 Essential


The diversity of cultures


Knows several phenomena relative to the diversity of cultures.


K12.1                                                               Important


Knows that there is (still) a great multiplicity of cultures all over the world.


K12.1.2                                                            Useful


Knows that in connection with a diversity of cultures, there exists a great plurality of values/norms.


K12.3                                                               Essential


Knows that one can find an extensive variety of situations of contact between cultures.


K12.4                                                               Essential


Knows that different cultures are continuously in contact in our immediate environment.


K12.5                                                               Essential


Knows that diversity of cultures does not imply superiority/inferiority of any one in relation to the others.


K13                                                                 Essential


Resemblances and differences between cultures


Knows that resemblances and differences exist between (sub) cultures.


K13.1                                                               Essential


Knows that each culture has (partially) its own way of functioning


K13.2.1                                                            Important


Knows some resemblances/differences between one’s own culture and other cultures.


K13.2                                                               Essential


Knows that there may be resemblances/differences between cultures.


K13.2.2                                                            Important


Knows some resemblances/differences between social practices/customs/values/means of expression between different cultures.


K13.2.4                                                            Important


Knows some differences in verbal/nonverbal expression of feelings/emotions in different cultures.


K13.2.3                                                            Important


Knows some resemblances/differences between the cultures of different social/generational/regional groups.


K13.2.3.1                                                         Important


Knows some resemblances/differences between the cultures of different social/generational/regional groups in one’s immediate environment.


K13.2.5                                                            Important


Knows some differences in the verbal/nonverbal expressions of social relations in different cultures.


K14                                                                 Essential


Culture, language & identity


Knows that identity is constructed, amongst other things, in relation to one or more linguistic/cultural affiliations.


K14.3                                                               Essential


Knows that one can have a multiple/plural/composite identity


K14.3.1                                                            Important


Knows that such an identity may be difficult to assume/live but that it may be lived in a perfectly harmonious way.


K14.4                                                               Important


Knows that bi/pluricultural bi/plurilingual identities exist.


K14.5                                                               Important


Knows of the existence of dangers of cultural weakening/alienation/possibilities of cultural enrichment, which may come about as a result of contact with other (dominant) languages/cultures.


K14.6                                                               Important


Knows that one’s own cultural identity may be complex (due to personal/family/national history…)


K14.6.1                                                            Important


Knows some major elements of one’s own cultural identity


K15                                                                 Essential


Culture and acquisition/learning


Knows how one acquires/learns a culture.


K15.2                                                               Important


Knows that one can apprehend a new culture as long as one wants to and accepts the values linked to that culture.


K15.4                                                               Important


Knows that it is normal to commit errors of behavior/of interpretation of behaviors, when one does not sufficiently know a culture and that being aware of this opens the way to learning




S1                                                                    Important


Can observe/analyze linguistic elements/cultural phenomena of languages/cultures which are more or less familiar


S1.1                                                                 Useful


Can make use of/masters processes of observation/analysis (breaking down into elements/classifying/establishing relationships between them)


S1.1.3                                                               Essential


Can resort to a known language/culture with a view to development of analysis of another language/culture


S1.1.4                                                               Essential


Can observe different languages/cultures simultaneously in order to hypotheses analyzing phenomena in a particular language/culture


S1.2                                                                 Important


Can observe/analyze/sounds (in languages little known or not at all)


S1.2.4                                                               Important


Can analyze a phonological system (isolate/classify units)


S1.3                                                                 Important


Can observe/analyze writing systems (in languages little known or not at all)


S1.3.1                                                               Important


Can isolate units of script/sentences/words/minimal units


S1.4                                                                 Useful


Can observe/analyze syntactic and or morphological structure


S1.4.1                                                               Useful


Can divide compound words into their constituent parts


S1.5                                                                 Useful


Can analyze pragmatic functions (in a language which is little known/familiar or not known/familiar at all)


S1.5.1                                                               Useful


Can analyze the links between pragmatic forms and functions (speech/acts)


S1.5.2                                                               Useful


Can analyze the relationship between form and context/situation


S1.6                                                                 Important


Can analyze communicative repertoires which are plurilingual in a plurilingual situation


S1.7                                                                 Important


Can analyze the cultural origin of different aspects of communication


S1.8                                                                 Important


Can analyze the cultural origins of certain behaviors


S1.9                                                                 Important


Can analyze specific social phenomena as being the consequence of cultural differences


S2                                                                    Important


Can identify linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in language/cultures, which are more or less familiar


S2.1                                                                 Important


Can identify sound forms (has aural recognition skills)


S2.1.1                                                               Important


Can identify simple phonetic elements (sounds)


S2.1.3                                                               Important


Can identify a morpheme or a word whilst listening


S2.2                                                                 Important


Can identify written forms


S2.2.1                                                               Important


Can identify elementary graphic forms (letters, ideograms, punctuation marks…)


S2.3                                                                 Essential


Can make use of linguistic evidence to identify words of different origin


S2.4                                                                 Important


Can identify grammatical categories/functions/markers (article, noun…)


S2.5                                                                 Important


Can identify languages on the basis of identification of linguistic forms


S2.6                                                                 Important


Can identify pragmatic functions


S2.7                                                                 Important


Can identify discourse types


S2.8                                                                 Important


Can identify cultural specifities/references/affinities


S3                                                                    Essential


Can compare linguistic/cultural features of different languages/cultures (Can perceive different linguistic cultural proximity and distance)


S3.1                                                                 Essential


Can apply procedures for making comparisons


S3.1.1                                                               Essential


Can formulate hypotheses about linguistic/cultural proximity


S3.2                                                                 Essential


Can perceive proximity and distance (can discriminate aurally)


S3.2.2                                                               Essential


Can perceive proximity between prosodic (the structure of words and verse ADJ) features


S3.2.4                                                               Essential


Can compare languages aurally


S3.3                                                                 Essential


Can perceive proximity of distance between graphic forms


S3.3.1                                                               Essential


Can perceive similarities/differences between graphic forms


S3.3.2                                                               Essential


Can perceive proximity/distance between graphic features at morpheme/word level


S3.4                                                                 Essential


Can perceive lexical proximity


S3.4.1                                                               Essential


Can perceive direct lexical proximity


S3.5                                                                 Essential


Can perceive global similarities between two/several languages


S3.6                                                                 Essential


Can compare the relationships between sounds and script in different languages


S3.7                                                                 Essential


Can compare grammatical functioning of different languages


S3.8                                                                 Essential


Can compare the grammatical functions of different languages


S3.9                                                                 Essential


Can compare communicative cultures


S3.10                                                               Essential


Can compare features of a culture (perceive the cultural proximity/distance)


S4                                                                    Useful


Can talk about/explain certain aspects of one’s own language/culture/other languages/other cultures


S4.1                                                                 Important


Can construct explanations meant for a foreign instructor about a feature of one’s own culture/meant for an interlocutor from one’s own culture about a feature of another culture.


S4.2                                                                 Important


Can explain misunderstandings


S4.3                                                                 Useful


Can explain one’s own knowledge of languages


S5                                                                    Essential


Can use knowledge and skills already mastered in one language in activities of comprehension/production in another language


S5.1                                                                 Essential


Can construct a set of hypotheses about affinities or differences between languages


S5.2                                                                 Essential


Can identify transfer points/features of a language which allow a transfer of knowledge between languages/within a language


S5.2.1                                                               Essential


Can compare transfer points in the target language with those in languages, which are mentally activated.


S5.3                                                                 Essential


Can make interlingual transfers/transfers of recognition, which establish a link between an identified feature of a known language and a feature one seeks to identify in an unfamiliar language/transfers of production from a known language to an unfamiliar one.


S5.3.2                                                               Important


Can carry out transfers of (semantic) content


S5.3.4                                                               Important


Can establish pragmatic transfers (can establish a link between communicative conventions in one’s own language and those in another language)


S5.4                                                                 Important


Can carry out intralingua transfers


S5.5                                                                 Important


Can check the validity of transfers, which have been made


S6                                                                    Important


Can interact in situations of contact between languages/cultures


S6.1                                                                 Essential


Can communicate in bi/plurilingual groups taking into account the repertoire of one’s interlocutors


S6.1.1                                                               Important


Can reformulate by simplifying the structure of the utterance/by varying the vocabulary/by making an effort to pronounce more clearly


S6.2                                                                 Important


Can ask for help when communicating in bi/plurilingual groups


S6.2.1                                                               Important


Can ask an interlocutor to reformulate what has been said


S6.2.3                                                               Important


Can ask an interlocutor to switch to another language


S6.2.2                                                               Important


Can ask an interlocutor to repeat what has been said in a simpler way


S6.3                                                                 Essential


Can communicate while taking sociolinguistic/sociocultural differences into account


S6.3.3                                                               Important


Can resort to different speech registers according to situation


S6.4                                                                 Essential


Can communicate between languages


S6.5                                                                 Essential


Can activate bilingual or plurilingual communication in relevant situations


S6.5.1                                                               Essential


Can vary/alternate languages/linguistic codes/modes of communication


S7                                                                    Important


Can assume ownership of (learn) linguistic features of usage/cultural references or behaviors which belong to more or less familiar languages & cultures


S7.1                                                                 Important


Can memorize unfamiliar features


S7.2                                                                 Useful


Can reproduce unfamiliar features of a language


S7.3                                                                 Essential


Can gain from previously acquired knowledge about languages and cultures during learning


S7.3.2                                                               Essential


Can use knowledge and skills acquired in one language to learn another


S7.3.3                                                               Important


Can use knowledge and skills acquired in one language to develop his/her knowledge and skills in that same language (through intralingua comparison, induction, deduction…)


S7.4                                                                 Essential


Can gain from transfers made /successful/unsuccessful) between a known language and another language in order to acquire features of that other language


S7.5                                                                 Essential


Can get ownership of a system for identifying correspondences and non-correspondences between languages known to varying degrees


S7.6                                                                 Useful


Can learn autonomously


S7.6.1.2                                                            Important


Can resort to other persons in order to learn (can ask an interlocutor to correct mistakes/can ask for information or explanations)


S7.6.1                                                               Useful


Can make use of resources, which facilitate learning in matters of languages and cultures


S7.7                                                                 Important


Can manage his/her learning in a reflective manner


S7.7.2                                                               Important


Can deliberately apply learning strategies


S7.7.3                                                               Important


Can benefit from previous learning experiences in new situations (Can transfer learning)


S7.7.4                                                               Important


Can observe/check his/her own learning process




A1 – A6


Attention/Sensitivity/Curiosity /Positive acceptance/Openness/Respect/Valorization


A1                                                                   Important


Attention to foreign languages/cultures/persons/to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in the environment/to language in general to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.


A1.1                                                                 Useful  


Attention to language (to semiotic manifestations)/to culture/to persons in general


A2                                                                   Important


Sensitivity to the existence of other languages/cultures/persons/to the existence of linguistic/cultural/human diversity


A2.1                                                                 Important


Sensitivity towards one’s own language/culture and other languages/cultures


A2.2                                                                 Useful


Sensitivity to linguistic/cultural differences


A2.2.3                                                              Important


Being aware of traces of otherness in a language (for example in loan words)/a culture


A2.5                                                                 Important


Sensitivity to pluralingualism and plurafication in the immediate or remote environment


A3                                                                   Essential


Curiosity about/interest in foreign languages/cultures/persons//pluricultural contexts//the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.


A3.1                                                                 Essential


Curiosity about a multilingual/multicultural environment


A3.2                                                                 Essential


Curiosity about discovering how (one’s own/other) languages/culture works


A3.2.1                                                              Essential


Being curious about (and wishing) to understand the similarities and differences between one’s own language/culture and the target language/culture


A4                                                                   Essential


Positive acceptance of linguistic/cultural diversity/of what is different


A4.1                                                                 Important


Mastery of one’s resistance/reticence towards what is linguistically/culturally different


A4.2                                                                 Important


Accepting the fact that another language/culture may function differently from one’s own language/culture


A4.2.1                                                              Important


Accepting the fact that another language can organize the construction of meaning on phonological/semantic distinctions (syntactic constructions which differ from those of one’s own language


A4.2.2                                                              Important


Accepting the fact that another culture may make use of different cultural behaviors


A4.3                                                                 Important


Accepting the fact that another language/culture may include elements which differ from those of one’s own language/culture


A4.3.2                                                              Important


Accepting the existence of signs and typographies which differ from those of one’s own language


A4.5                                                                 Important


Acceptance of the importance of all languages/cultures and the different places they occupy


A5                                                                   Important


Openness to the diversity of languages/people/cultures of the world/to the diversity as (to difference itself)


A5.2                                                                 Important    


Openness to allophonic speakers and their languages


A5.3                                                                 Important


Openness to languages and cultures


A5.3.2                                                              Useful


Openness towards foreign languages/cultures taught at school


A6                                                                   Important


Respect/regard for foreign/different languages/cultures/persons/for the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//for linguistic/cultural human diversity as such (in general)


A6.1                                                                 Important


Respect for differences and diversity (in a plurilingual and pluricultural environment)


A6.5                                                                 Useful


Having respect for human dignity and universal human rights


A6.5.1                                                              Important


Respecting each individuals language and culture


A7 – A8


Disposition/Motivation/Will/Desire to engage in activity related to languages/cultures and to the diversity of languages and cultures


A7                                                                   Important


Disposition/motivation with respect to linguistic/cultural diversity/plurality


A7.1                                                                 Important


Disposition to plurilingual/pluricultural socialization


A8                                                                   Essential


A wish/will to be involved/to act in connection with linguistic or cultural diversity/plurality//in a plurilingual or pluricultural environment


A8.5                                                                 Important


A wish to discover other languages/other cultures/other peoples


A8.5.1                                                              Useful


A wish to encounter other languages/other cultures/ other peoples linked to the personal or familiar history of persons one knows


A9 – A12


Attitudes/Stances of questioning –


Distanciation – An avoidance attachment style used more for distancing strategies such as denying or minimizing their internal distress.


Decentration – Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development where a child slowly moves away from an egocentric world to a world shared with others.


A9                                                                   Important


An attitude of critical questioning/a critical position towards language/culture in general


A9.1                                                                 Important


A will to ask questions relative to language/cultures


A9.2                                                                 Important


Considering languages/cultures/linguistic/cultural diversity//linguistic/cultural mixes//the learning of languages//their importance//their utility as issues about which questions and discussions may arise.


A9.2.1                                                              Important


Considering the way languages and their different units (phonemes/words/sentences/texts) function as an object of analysis and reflection


A9.2.2                                                              Important


Considering the way cultures and their domains (institutions/rituals/uses) as an object of analysis and reflection






A16                                                                 Important


Assuming one’s own (linguistic/cultural) identity


A16.2                                                               Important


Accepting a social identity in which the languages one speaks/the culture one ascribes to occupy an (important) position


A16.2.2                                                            Important


Accepting a bi/plurilingual/bi/pluricultural identity


A16.3                                                               Important


Considering one’s own historical identity with confidence/pride but also while respecting others identities


A17 – A19


Attitudes to learning


A17                                                                 Important


Sensitivity to experience


A17.1                                                               Important


Being sensitive to the extent/the value/the interest of one’s own linguistic/cultural competences


A17.2                                                               Important


According value to linguistic knowledge/skills irrespective of the context in which they have been acquired (within school/outside school)


A17.4                                                               Useful


Having confidence in one’s own abilities at language learning (in one’s abilities to extend one’s own linguistic competences


A18                                                                 Important


A motivation to learn languages (of schooling/ family/foreign/regional…)


A18.1                                                               Important


A positive attitude towards the learning of languages (and the speakers who speak them)


A18.1.2                                                            Important


A wish to perfect one’s mastery of the maternal language/ of the language of schooling


A18.1.3                                                            Important


A desire to learn other languages


A18.1.4                                                            Important


An interest in the learning of languages other than those for which teaching is actually available


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