Stage 1 – Grade 5 – 6 – Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude.

PowerPoint Source for Knowledge/Culture, Skills and Attitude

For Grades 5-6

Knowledge

 

K8                                                                   Essential

 

Possesses Knowledge about what cultures are/how they work.

 

K8.1                                                                 Useful

 

Knows that a culture is a grouping of practices or representations/or values of all kinds shared (at least partially) by its members

 

K8.3                                                                 Important

 

Knows that culture systems are complex/manifest themselves in different domains (special interaction, the relationship with the environment, knowledge of reality, language, table manners)

 

K8.6.2                                                              Important

 

Is familiar with some schemes of interaction specific to certain cultures as far as knowledge of the world is concerned (numbering, methods of measurement, ways of telling time etc)

 

K8.4                                                                 Essential

 

Knows that members of each culture define (partially) specific rules/norms/values about social practices/behaviors

 

K8.4.4                                                              Important

 

Knows that these rules/norms/values may evolve in time and space

 

K8.5                                                                 Important

 

Knows that certain practices in each culture may be arbitrary (rites, language, table manners)

 

K8.6                                                                 Essential

 

Knows that each culture determines/organizes as least partly the perception/view of the world/way of thinking of its members

 

K8.7                                                                 Important

 

Knows that culture influences behaviors/social practices/personal evaluations (of oneself/of others)

 

K9                                                                   Important

 

Knows that cultural diversity and social diversity are closely linked.

 

K9.1                                                                 Essential

 

Knows that a culture is always complex and is itself made up of (more or less) different & conflictual/convergent sub cultures

 

K9.2                                                                 Important

 

Knows that within a culture there exists sub-cultures corresponding to regional/generational groupings

 

K9.2.1                                                              Essential

 

Knows some examples of the variation of cultural practices according to social/regional/generational groupings

 

K9.3                                                                 Important

 

Knows that every person forms part of at least one cultural community, and that many persons form part of more than one cultural community

 

K9.4                                                                 Important

 

Knows characteristics of their own situation/cultural environment

 

K9.4.1                                                              Essential

 

Knows (at least to some extent) which culture one lives in

 

K10                                                                 Important

 

Knows the role of culture in intercultural relations and communication

 

K10.1                                                               Essential

 

Knows that customs/norms/values specific to each culture make behavior/personal decisions complex within a context of cultural diversity

 

K10.2                                                               Important

 

Knows that culture and identity influence communicative interactions

 

K10.2.2                                                            Essential

 

Is aware how cultures structure roles in social interactions

 

K10.5.1.1                                                         Important

 

Knows some stereotypes other cultures have about one’s own culture

 

K10.3                                                               Important

 

Knows that cultural differences may underlie verbal/non-verbal communication/interaction

 

K10.9.1                                                            Important

 

Knows that causes of misunderstandings must be sought/clarified in common

 

K10.4                                                               Essential

 

Knows that intercultural relations and communication are influenced by knowledge/representations one has of other cultures and those that others have of one’s own culture

 

K10.5                                                               Essential

 

Knows that the interpretation that others give to one’s behavior may be different from that which that same person gives to that same behavior

 

K10.6                                                               Important

 

Knows that the perception of one’s own culture depends also on individual factors/previous experiences, traits of character

 

K10.7                                                               Essential

 

Knows (is aware of) one’s own reactions to linguistic/ language/cultural differences

 

K10.8                                                               Important

 

Has cultural references which structure one’s knowledge and perception of the world/other cultures, as well as one’s intercultural social and communicative practices

 

K11                                                                 Important

 

Knows that cultures are continuously evolving

 

K11.1                                                               Important  

                                                           

Knows that cultural practices/values are created by and evolve under the influence of different factors (history/the environment/the actions of members of the community)

 

K11.2                                                               Useful

 

Knows that certain cultures are linked by particular historical relationships (common origin, old contacts etc)

 

K11.3.4                                                            Important 

                                                   

Knows that cultural differences tend to dwindle under the influence of globalization

 

K12                                                                 Essential

 

Knows several phenomena relative to the diversity of cultures

 

K12.2                                                               Important  

                                                  

Knows that it is often difficult to distinguish one culture from another

 

K12.2.1                                                            Important

 

Knows that borders between cultures are often blurred/indeterminate/shifting

 

K12.2.2                                                            Useful

 

Knows that it is difficult to distinguish/count cultures

 

K12.3                                                               Essential

 

Knows that one can find an extensive variety of situations of contact between cultures

 

K12.5                                                               Essential

 

Knows that diversity of cultures does not imply superiority/inferiority of any one in relation to the others

 

K12.5.1                                                            Important

 

Knows that relations between countries are often unequal/hierarchized

 

K12.5.2                                                            Important

 

Knows that hierarchies established arbitrarily between cultures change with time

  

K14                                                                 Essential

 

Knows that identity is constructed, amongst other things, in relation to one or more linguistic/cultural affiliations

 

K14.1                                                               Essential

 

Knows that identity is constructed on different levels (social/national/supranational…)

 

K14.1.1                                                            Useful

 

Knows that similarities and the differences between European cultures are a constitutive element of European identity

 

K14.2                                                               Important

 

Knows that one always belongs to various (sub) cultures

 

K14.5                                                               Important

 

Knows of the existence of dangers of cultural weakening/alienation/possibilities of cultural enrichment, which may come about as a result of contact with other (dominant) languages/cultures

 

K15                                                                 Essential

 

Knows how one acquires/learns a culture

 

K15.1                                                               Important

 

Knows that belonging to a culture/acculturation is the result of a long (largely implicit) and subconscious process of learning

 

K15.3                                                               Essential

 

Knows that one is never obliged to adopt the behaviors/values of another culture

 

Skills

 

S1                                                                    Useful

 

Can observe/analyze linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in languages/cultures which are more or less familiar

 

S1.1                                                                 Useful

 

Can make use of/masters processes of observation/analysis (breaking down into elements/classifying/establishing relationships between them)

 

S1.1.2                                                               Important

 

Can formulate hypotheses in view of an analysis of linguistic/cultural phenomena

 

S1.2                                                                 Important

 

Can observe/analyze sounds (in languages little known or not at all)

 

S1.3                                                                 Important

 

Can observe/analyze writing systems (in languages little known or not at all)

 

S1.3.2                                                               Important

 

Where these exist, can establish correspondences between script & sound

 

S1.3.2.1                                                            Essential

 

Can decipher a text written in an unfamiliar script once the units have been isolated and the grapho-phonetic correspondences have been established

 

S1.4                                                                 Useful

 

Can observe/analyze syntactic and or morphological structure

 

S1.4.2                                                               Important

 

Can analyze a syntactic structure in an unfamiliar language once it is repeated using different lexical units

 

S1.4.3                                                               Important

 

Can accede, at least partially, to the meaning of an utterance in a little known or unknown language by identifying words and by analyzing the syntactic/morph syntactic structure of that utterance

 

S1.5                                                                 Useful

 

Can analyze pragmatic functions (in a language that is little known/familiar or not known/familiar at all)

 

S1.5.3                                                               Useful

 

Can analyze the relationship between form & interaction

 

S1.6                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze communicative repertoires which are plurilingual in a plurilingual situation

 

S1.7                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze cultural origin of different aspects of communication

 

S1.7.1                                                               Important

 

Can analyze misunderstandings due to cultural differences

 

S1.8                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze the cultural origins of certain behaviors

 

S1.9                                                                 Important

 

Can analyze specific social phenomena as being the consequence of cultural differences

 

S1.10                                                               Important

 

Can develop an interpretation system which enables one to perceive the characteristics of a culture/ meaning/ briefs/ practices

 

S2                                                                    Useful

 

Can identify linguistic elements/cultural phenomena in language/cultures which are more or less familiar

 

S2.1                                                                 Important

 

Can identify sound forms (has aural recognition skills)

 

S2.2                                                                 Important

 

Can identify written forms

 

S2.2.2                                                               Important

 

Can identify a morpheme /a word in the written form of familiar or unfamiliar languages

 

S2.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can make use of linguistic evidence to identify words of different origin

 

S2.3.1                                                               Important

 

Can identify loans/words of international origin/regionalisms

 

S2.4                                                                 Important

 

Can identify grammatical categories/functions/markers (article, noun…)

 

S2.5                                                                 Important

 

Can identify languages on the basis of identification of linguistic forms

 

S2.5.1                                                               Important

 

Can identify languages on the basis of phonological evidence

 

S2.5.2                                                               Important

 

Can identify languages on the basis of known words/expressions

 

S2.6                                                                 Important

 

Can identify pragmatic functions

 

S2.7                                                                 Important

 

Can identify discourse types

 

S2.8                                                                 Important

 

Can identify cultural specificities/references/affinities

 

S2.8.1                                                               Important

 

Can identify specificities/references/affinities in cultural features manifested by other pupils in the class/other members of a group

 

S2.9                                                                 Important

 

Can identify communicative variations engendered by cultural differences

 

S2.10                                                               Important

 

Can identify specific forms of behavior linked to cultural differences

 

S2.11                                                               Important

 

Can identify cultural prejudice

 

S3                                                                    Essential

 

Can compare linguistic/cultural features of different languages/cultures (Can perceive/establish linguistic cultural proximity and distance)

  

S3.1                                                                 Essential

 

Can apply procedures for making comparisons

 

S3.1.3                                                               Essential

 

Can use a range of different criteria to establish linguistic/cultural proximity

 

S3.2                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive proximity and distance (can discriminate aurally)

 

S3.2.3                                                               Essential

 

Can perceive proximity/distance between sounds at morpheme/word level

 

S3.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive proximity or distance between graphic forms

 

S3.3.3                                                               Essential

 

Can compare scripts used by two/several languages

 

S3.4                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive lexical proximity

 

S3.4.2                                                               Essential

 

Can perceive indirect lexical proximity

 

S3.4.3                                                               Essential

 

Can compare the form of loan words with their original language

 

S3.5                                                                 Essential

 

Can perceive global similarities between two/several languages

 

S3.5.1                                                               Essential

 

Can formulate hypotheses about whether languages are related on the basis of similarities between them

 

S3.6                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare the relationships between sounds and script in different languages

 

S3.7                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare grammatical functioning of different languages

 

S3.7.1                                                               Essential

 

Can compare sentence structure in different languages

 

S3.8                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare the grammatical functions of different languages

 

S3.9                                                                 Essential

 

Can compare communicative cultures

 

S3.9.2                                                               Essential

 

Can compare communicative repertoires used in different cultures

 

S3.9.2.1                                                            Essential

 

Can compare one’s own language repertoire with those of other languages

 

S3.9.2.2                                                            Essential

 

Can compare the communicative repertoire used in different languages

 

S3.10                                                               Essential

 

Can compare features of a culture (perceive the cultural proximity/distance)

 

S3.10.1                                                             Essential

 

Can use a range of criteria to recognize cultural proximity

 

S3.10.2                                                             Essential

 

Can perceive differences or similarities in different aspects of social life (living conditions/ working conditions/ social activities)

 

S3.10.5                                                             Essential

 

Can relate documents/events from another culture to documents/events in one’s own culture

 

S4                                                                    Useful

 

Can talk about/explain certain aspects of one’s own language/culture/other languages/other cultures

 

S4.1                                                                 Important

 

Can construct explanations meant for a foreign instructor about a feature of one’s own culture/meant for an interlocutor from one’s own culture about a feature of another culture

 

S4.1.1                                                               Important

 

Can talk about cultural prejudices

 

S4.2                                                                 Important

 

Can explain misunderstandings

 

S4.3                                                                 Useful

 

Can explain one’s own knowledge of languages

 

S4.4                                                                 Important

 

Can agree about cultural diversity (advantages, disadvantages, difficulties) and construct his/her own opinion about it

 

S5                                                                    Essential

 

Can use knowledge and skills already mastered in one language in activities of comprehension/production in another language

 

S5.1                                                                 Essential

 

Can construct a set of hypotheses about affinities or differences between languages

 

S5.2                                                                 Essential

 

Can identify transfer points/features of a language which allow a transfer of knowledge between languages/within a language

 

S5.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can make Interlingua transfers/transfers of recognition, which establish a link between an identified feature of a known language and a feature one seeks to identify in an unfamiliar language/transfers of production from known language to an unfamiliar one

 

S5.3.1                                                               Important

 

Can carry out transfers of form (set in motion transfer processes) based on interphonological and intergraphemic characteristics/regularities and irregularities

 

S5.3.3                                                               Important

 

Can establish grammatical regularities in an unfamiliar language on the basis of grammatical regularities in a familiar language/can carry out transfers at grammatical level

 

S5.4                                                                 Important

 

Can carry out intralingua transfers

 

S5.5                                                                 Important   

                                                          

Can check the validity of transfers, which have been made

 

S5.6                                                                 Essential

 

Can identify one’s own reading strategies in the first language and apply them to the second language

 

S6                                                                    Important

 

Can interact in situations of contact between languages/cultures

 

S6.1                                                                 Essential

 

Can communicate in bi/plurilingual groups taking into account the repertoire of one’s interlocutors

 

S6.1.2                                                               Important

 

Can discuss strategies for interaction

 

S6.2                                                                 Important

 

Can ask for help when communicating in bi/plurilingual groups

 

S6.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can communicate while taking sociolinguistic/sociocultural differences into account

 

S6.3.4                                                               Important

 

Can use metaphoric/idiomatic expressions/formulae in accordance with the cultural background of one’s interlocutor

 

S6.4                                                                 Essential

 

Can communicate between languages

 

S6.4.1.1                                                            Important

 

Can present a commentary/expose in one language based upon a plurilingual set of documents

 

S6.5                                                                 Essential

 

Can activate bilingual or plurilingual communication in relevant situations

 

S6.5.2                                                               Essential

 

Can produce a text which registers/varieties/languages alternate functionality (when the situation allows it)

 

S7                                                                    Useful

 

Can assume ownership of (learn) linguistic features of usage/cultural references or behaviors which belong to more or less familiar languages & cultures

 

S7.1                                                                 Important

 

Can memorize unfamiliar features

 

S7.2                                                                 Useful

 

Can reproduce unfamiliar features of a language

 

S7.3                                                                 Essential

 

Can gain from previously acquired knowledge about languages and cultures during learning

 

S7.3.1                                                               Essential

 

Can gain from previous intercultural experiences to enrich his/her intercultural competence

 

S7.4                                                                 Essential

 

Can gain from transfers made (successful/unsuccessful),

Between a known language and another language in order to acquire features of that other language

 

S7.5                                                                 Essential

 

Can get ownership of a system for identifying correspondences and non-correspondences between languages known to varying degrees

 

S7.6                                                                 Useful

 

Can learn autonomously

 

S7.7                                                                 Important

 

Can manage his/her learning in a reflective manner

 

S7.7.1                                                               Important

 

Can identify his/her own learning needs/objectives

  

S7.7.3.1                                                            Essential

 

Can benefit from previous use of skills and knowledge in his/her/another language in learning a new language

 

S7.7.4.1                                                            Important

 

Can observe progress/lack of progress in his/her own learning

 

S7.7.4.2                                                            Important

 

Can compare different methods of learning taking their success or failures into account

 

A1 – A6

 

Attention/Sensitivity/Curiosity /Positive acceptance/Openness/Respect/Valorization

 

A1                                                                   Important

 

Attention to foreign languages/cultures/persons/to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in the environment/to language in general to linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.

 

A1.1                                                                 Useful

 

Attention to language (to semiotic manifestations) /to culture/to persons in general

 

A2                                                                   Important

 

Sensitivity to the existence of other languages/ cultures/ persons//to the existence of linguistic/ cultural/ human diversity

 

A2.2                                                                 Useful

 

Sensitivity to linguistic/cultural differences

 

A2.2.1                                                              Useful

 

Being aware of different aspects of language/culture which may vary from language to language and culture to culture

 

A2.2.2                                                              Important

 

Being aware of the local/regional/social/generational variants of a same language (dialects)/culture

 

A2.3                                                                 Important

 

Sensitivity to linguistic/cultural similarities

 

A2.4                                                                 Important

 

Being sensitive both to differences and to similarities between different languages/cultures

 

A2.4.1                                                              Important

 

Being aware of the great diversity of manners and at the same time aware of the similarity of universal needs to which these manners answer

 

A2.5                                                                 Important

 

Sensitivity to pluralingualism and to the plurification in the immediate or remote environment

 

A2.5.1                                                              Useful

 

Being aware of the linguistic/cultural diversity of society

 

A3                                                                   Essential

 

Curiosity about/interest in foreign languages/cultures/persons//pluricultural contexts//the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//linguistic/cultural/human diversity in general.

 

A3.2                                                                 Essential

 

Curiosity about discovering how (one’s own/other) languages/culture works

 

A4                                                                   Essential

 

Positive acceptance of linguistic/cultural diversity/of what is different

 

A4.2                                                                 Important

 

Accepting the fact that another language/culture may function differently from one’s own language/culture

 

A4.3                                                                 Important

 

Accepting the fact that another language/culture may include elements which differ from those of one’s own language/culture 

 

A4.3.3                                                              Useful

 

Accepting the existence of cultural features/traditions/artifacts which may differ from those of one’s own culture

 

A4.6                                                                 Important

 

Reacting without an a priori negative slant to bilingual talk (ways of speaking which resort to two languages used alternately, essentially between speakers sharing the same plurilingual repertoire

 

A4.7                                                                 Important

 

Reacting without an a priori negative slant to mixed cultural practices

 

A5                                                                   Important

 

Openness to the diversity of languages/people/cultures of the world/to the diversity as (to difference itself)

 

A5.1                                                                 Important

 

Empathy (openness) to alternate choices

 

A5.2                                                                 Important

 

Openness to allophonic speakers and their languages

 

A5.3                                                                 Important

 

Openness to languages and cultures

 

A5.3.1                                                              Important

 

Openness towards languages/cultures, which are viewed with less regard (Minority/cultures/languages/cultures belonging to migrants)

 

A5.3.3                                                              Useful

 

Openness towards the unfamiliar

 

A5.3.3.1                                                            Important

 

Being open to what seems incomprehensible and different

 

A6                                                                   Important

 

Respect/regard for foreign/different languages/cultures/persons/for the linguistic/cultural/human diversity of the environment//for linguistic/cultural human diversity as such (in general)

 

A6.1                                                                 Important

 

Respect for differences and diversity (in a plurilingual and pluricultural environment

 

A6.2                                                                 Important

 

Valuing linguistic/cultural contacts

 

A6.3                                                                 Useful

 

Having regard for bilingualism

 

A6.5                                                                 Useful

 

Having respect for human dignity and universal human rights

 

A7 – A8

 

Disposition/Motivation/Will/Desire to engage in activity related to languages/cultures and to the diversity of languages and cultures

 

A7                                                                   Important

 

Disposition/motivation with respect to linguistic/cultural diversity/plurality

 

A7.1                                                                 Important

 

Disposition to plurilingual/pluricultural socialization

 

A7.2                                                                 Important

 

Readiness to engage in pluralistic communication while following the rituals and conventions appropriate to context

 

A7.2.1                                                              Important    

                                                         

Readiness to try to communicate in the language of others and to behave in a manner considered appropriate by others

 

A7.3                                                                 Important

 

Readiness to face difficulties linked to plurilingual/ pluricultural situations and interactions

 

A7.3.1                                                              Important

 

Ability to face that, which is new/strange in the linguistic/ cultural behavior in the cultural values of others

 

A7.3.3                                                              Useful

 

Readiness to live linguistic/ cultural experiences, which do not conform to one’s expectations

 

A7.4                                                                 Useful

 

Disposition to share one’s linguistic/ cultural knowledge with others

 

A7.5                                                                 Important

 

Motivation to study/ compare the functioning of different languages (structures, vocabulary, systems of writing)/ cultures

 

A7.5.1                                                              Important

 

Motivation for the observation of more or less unfamiliar linguistic/ cultural phenomena

 

A8                                                                   Essential

 

A wish/will to be involved to act in connection with linguistic or cultural diversity/ plurality// in a plurilingual or pluricultural environment

 

A8.1                                                                 Important

 

A will to take up the challenge of linguistic/ cultural diversity (going beyond simple tolerance, towards deeper levels of understanding and respect, towards acceptance)

 

A8.2                                                                 Important

 

Participating consciously in the construction of one’s own plurilingual/ pluricultural competence/ voluntary involvement in the development of the process of plurilingual/ pluricultural socialization

 

A8.3                                                                 Useful

 

A will to build/ to participate in a shared language culture (built on knowledge, values and attitudes to language, shared in general by a community)

 

A8.5                                                                 Important

 

A wish to discover other languages/ other cultures/ other peoples

 

A8.6                                                                 Useful

 

A will/wish to be involved in communication with persons from different cultures/ to come into contact with others

 

A8.6.1                                                              Useful

 

A will to interact with members of the receiving culture/ language/ not seeking only the company of one’s own culture

 

A8.6.2                                                              Useful

 

A will to try to understand the differences in behaviour/ values/ attitudes of members of the receiving culture

 

A8.6.3.1                                                            Important 

                                                   

A commitment to helping persons from another culture/ language

 

A8.6.3.2                                                            Useful

 

Accepting help from persons of another culture/ language

 

A8.7                                                                 Important

 

A will to assume the implications/ consequences of one’s decisions and behaviours (ethical dimension responsibility)

 

A8.8                                                                 Important

 

A will to learn from others

 

A9 – A12

 

Attitudes/Stances of questioning –

 

Distanciation – An avoidance attachment style used more for distancing strategies such as denying or minimizing their internal distress.

 

Decentration – Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development where a child slowly moves away from an egocentric world to a world shared with others.

 

A9                                                                   Important

 

An attitude of critical questioning/ a critical position towards language/ culture in general

 

A9.1                                                                 Important

 

A will to ask questions relative to language/ cultures

 

A9.2                                                                 Important

 

Considering languages/ cultures/ linguistic/ cultural diversity// linguistic/ cultural mixes// the learning of languages// their importance// their utility as issues about which questions and discussions may arise

 

A9.2.3                                                              Important

 

Considering one’s own representations and attitudes towards bilingualism/ pluralingualism/ cultural mixing as an object of analysis and reflection

 

A9.2.4                                                              Useful

 

Having a critical attitude in respect of the role of language in social relations (of power/ inequality, the attribution of identity)/ the sociopolitical aspects linked to the functions of languages

 

A9.3                                                                 Important

 

A will to question the values and presuppositions of the cultural products and practices of one’s own environment/ of other cultural contexts

 

A9.4                                                                 Important

 

A critical attitude to one’s own values (norms) the values (norms) of others

 

A10                                                                 Useful

 

A will to construct informed knowledge/ representations

 

A10.1                                                               Useful

 

A will to possess a more considered/ less normative view of linguistic/ cultural phenomena (loans/linguistics or cultural mixes/ etc…)

 

A10.2                                                               Useful

 

A will to take complexity into account/ to avoid generalizations about every object concerned in the field of languages and cultures

 

A10.2.1                                                            Important

 

A will to possess a differentiated view of different forms of types of pluralingualism

 

A10.3                                                               Important

 

A will to take critical distance from conventional attitudes about/ concerning cultural differences

 

A11                                                                 Important

 

A disposition/ a will to suspend one’s judgment/ one’s acquired representations/ one’s prejudices

 

A11.1                                                               Essential

 

Being disposed to distance oneself from one’s own language/ culture// look at one’s own language from the outside

 

A11.2                                                               Essential

 

Disposition to suspend judgment about one’s own culture/ other cultures

 

A11.3                                                               Important

 

A will to combat (deconstruct/ overcome) one’s own prejudices towards other languages cultures and their speakers/members

 

A11.3.1                                                            Important

 

Being attentive to one’s own negative reactions towards cultural/linguistic/differences (fears, contempt, disgust, superiority)

 

A11.3.3                                                            Important   

                               

Taking a view of languages as dynamic/evolutive/hybrid (as opposed to the notion of the purity of language)

 

A11.3.4                                                            Important

 

Being ready to discard one’s own prejudices about languages which have been marginalised (regional languages/ languages of migrant learners/ sign languages)

 

A12                                                                 Essential

 

Disposition to starting a process of linguistic/ cultural decantation/relativisation

 

A12.1                                                               Important

 

Being ready to distance oneself from one’s own cultural perspective and to be attentive to the effects that this may have on one’s own perception of phenomena

 

A12.2                                                               Important

 

Accepting to suspend or to question one’s practices/behaviours/ values and adopt behaviours/ attitudes/ values other than those which have so far constituted one’s linguistic and cultural identity

 

A12.2.1                                                            Essential

 

Being ready to decenter oneself relative to the maternal language and culture/the language and culture of the school

 

A12.2.2                                                            Useful

 

Being ready to put oneself in the place of the other

 

A13                                                                 Important

 

A will/disposition to adapt oneself/ flexibility

 

A13.1                                                               Important

 

A will to adapt/ to be flexible in one’s own behaviour when interacting with persons who are linguistically/ culturally different from oneself

 

A13.2                                                               Useful

 

Being ready to go through the different stages of the process of adaptation to another culture

 

A13.2.1                                                            Useful

 

A will to (try to) manage the frustrations/ emotions created by one’s participation in another culture

 

A13.3                                                               Important

 

Flexibility in one’s own stance (behaviour/attitude) vis a vis foreign languages

 

A13.4                                                               Important

 

A will to face different manners of perception/ expression /behaviour

 

A13.5                                                               Useful

 

Tolerating ambiguity

 

A14                                                                 Useful

 

Having self-confidence/feeling at ease

 

A14.2                                                               Useful

 

Being self-confident in a situation of communication (expression/reception/interaction/mediation)

 

A15                                                                 Important

 

A feeling of familiarity

 

A15.1                                                               Important

 

A feeling of familiarity linked to similarities/proximities between languages/between cultures

 

A16

 

Identity

 

A16                                                                 Important

 

Assuming one’s own (linguistic/cultural) identity

 

A16.1                                                               Useful

 

Being sensitive to the complexity/the diversity of the rapport which every person has with language/languages/cultures

 

A16.1.1                                                            Useful

 

Readiness to consider one’s own relation to different languages/cultures in view of its history/its actual situation on the world

 

A16.2                                                               Important

 

Accepting the social identity in which the languages one speaks/the culture one ascribes to occupy an (important) position

 

A16.2.1                                                           Useful

 

Assuming oneself (seeing oneself) as a member of a social/cultural/linguistic community/communities

 

A16.2.3                                                            Important

 

Considering that a bi/plurilingual/bi/pluricultural identity is an asset

 

A16.3                                                               Important

 

Considering one’s own historical identity with confidence/ pride but also while respecting other identities

 

A16.3.1                                                            Important

 

Respect oneself, irrespective of which languages/cultures/minority/denigrated languages/ cultures one belongs to.

 

A16.5                                                               Useful

 

Being attentive to the possibilities of cultural openness/enrichment that contact with another/other language/cultures may bring about

 

A17                                                                 Important

 

Sensitivity to experience

 

A17.1                                                               Important

 

Being sensitive to the extent/ the value/ the interest of one’s own linguistic/ cultural competences

 

A17.2                                                               Important

 

According value to linguistic knowledge/skills irrespective of the context in which they have been acquired (within school/outside school)

 

A17.3                                                               Useful

 

Being ready to learn from one’s errors

 

A17.4                                                               Useful

 

Having confidence in one’s own abilities at language learning/ in one’s abilities to extend one’s own linguistic competences

 

A18                                                                 Important

 

A motivation to learn languages (of schooling/family/foreign/regional…)

 

A18.1                                                               Important

 

A positive attitude towards the learning of languages (and the speakers who speak them)

 

A18.1.5                                                            Important

 

An interest in the learning of languages less or little taught in formal schooling

 

A18.2                                                               Important

 

An interest for more conscious (more programmed linguistic learning)

 

A19                                                                 Important

 

Attitudes aiming to construct pertinent and informed representations for learning

 

A19.1                                                               Important

 

Disposition to modify one’s own knowledge/ representations about learning of languages when these appear to be unfavourable to learning (negative prejudice)

 

A19.2                                                               Useful

 

Interest in learning techniques/ in one’s own learning style

 

A19.2.1                                                            Important

 

Self-questioning on adapted/specific comprehension strategies used when faced with an unknown language/ code

 

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